Published on in Vol 22, No 8 (2020): August

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Conversational Agents in Health Care: Scoping Review and Conceptual Analysis

Conversational Agents in Health Care: Scoping Review and Conceptual Analysis

Conversational Agents in Health Care: Scoping Review and Conceptual Analysis


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  115. Youn K, Cho M. Business types matter: new insights into the effects of anthropomorphic cues in AI chatbots. Journal of Services Marketing 2023;37(8):1032 View
  116. Cai L, Li J, Lv H, Liu W, Niu H, Wang Z. Integrating domain knowledge for biomedical text analysis into deep learning: A survey. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 2023;143:104418 View
  117. Ollier J, Suryapalli P, Fleisch E, Wangenheim F, Mair J, Salamanca-Sanabria A, Kowatsch T. Can digital health researchers make a difference during the pandemic? Results of the single-arm, chatbot-led Elena+: Care for COVID-19 interventional study. Frontiers in Public Health 2023;11 View
  118. Phiri M, Munoriyarwa A. Health Chatbots in Africa: Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e35573 View
  119. Viduani A, Cosenza V, Fisher H, Buchweitz C, Piccin J, Pereira R, Kohrt B, Mondelli V, van Heerden A, Araújo R, Kieling C. Assessing Mood With the Identifying Depression Early in Adolescence Chatbot (IDEABot): Development and Implementation Study. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e44388 View
  120. Spagnolli A, Cenzato G, Gamberini L. Modeling the Conversation with Digital Health Assistants in Adherence Apps: Some Considerations on the Similarities and Differences with Familiar Medical Encounters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2023;20(12):6182 View
  121. Passanante A, Pertwee E, Lin L, Lee K, Wu J, Larson H. Conversational AI and Vaccine Communication: Systematic Review of the Evidence. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e42758 View
  122. Yang H, Wang F, Greenblatt M, Huang S, Zhang Y. AI Chatbots in Clinical Laboratory Medicine: Foundations and Trends. Clinical Chemistry 2023;69(11):1238 View
  123. Andrews N, Ireland D, Vijayakumar P, Burvill L, Hay E, Westerman D, Rose T, Schlumpf M, Strong J, Claus A. Acceptability of a Pain History Assessment and Education Chatbot (Dolores) Across Age Groups in Populations With Chronic Pain: Development and Pilot Testing. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e47267 View
  124. Corrêa J, Neto A, Pinto G, Lima L, Teles A. Lhia: A Smart Chatbot for Breastfeeding Education and Recruitment of Human Milk Donors. Applied Sciences 2023;13(12):6923 View
  125. Chow J, Blight V, Brown M, Glynn V, Lane B, Larkin A, Marshall S, Matthews P, Rowles M, Warner B. Curious thing, an artificial intelligence (AI)-based conversational agent for COVID-19 patient management. Australian Journal of Primary Health 2023;29(4):312 View
  126. Tan T, Roslan N, Li J, Zou X, Chen X, Santosa A. Patient Acceptability of Symptom Screening and Patient Education Using a Chatbot for Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases: Survey Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e49239 View
  127. Lin X, Martinengo L, Jabir A, Ho A, Car J, Atun R, Tudor Car L. Scope, Characteristics, Behavior Change Techniques, and Quality of Conversational Agents for Mental Health and Well-Being: Systematic Assessment of Apps. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e45984 View
  128. Allen J, Earp B, Koplin J, Wilkinson D. Consent GPT: Is It Ethical to Delegate Procedural Consent to Conversational AI?. SSRN Electronic Journal 2023 View
  129. Rollwage M, Habicht J, Juechems K, Carrington B, Viswanathan S, Stylianou M, Hauser T, Harper R. Using Conversational AI to Facilitate Mental Health Assessments and Improve Clinical Efficiency Within Psychotherapy Services: Real-World Observational Study. JMIR AI 2023;2:e44358 View
  130. Wutz M, Hermes M, Winter V, Köberlein-Neu J. Factors Influencing the Acceptability, Acceptance, and Adoption of Conversational Agents in Health Care: Integrative Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e46548 View
  131. Allen J, Earp B, Koplin J, Wilkinson D. Consent-GPT: is it ethical to delegate procedural consent to conversational AI?. Journal of Medical Ethics 2024;50(2):77 View
  132. Nutbeam D. Artificial intelligence and health literacy—proceed with caution. Health Literacy and Communication Open 2023;1(1) View
  133. Nadarzynski T, Lunt A, Knights N, Bayley J, Llewellyn C. “But can chatbots understand sex?” Attitudes towards artificial intelligence chatbots amongst sexual and reproductive health professionals: An exploratory mixed-methods study. International Journal of STD & AIDS 2023;34(11):809 View
  134. Minian N, Mehra K, Rose J, Veldhuizen S, Zawertailo L, Ratto M, Lecce J, Selby P. Cocreation of a conversational agent to help patients adhere to their varenicline treatment: A study protocol. DIGITAL HEALTH 2023;9 View
  135. Ahaley S, Pandey A, Juneja S, Gupta T, Vijayakumar S. ChatGPT in medical writing: A game-changer or a gimmick?. Perspectives in Clinical Research 2023 View
  136. Wong R, Ming L, Raja Ali R. The Intersection of ChatGPT, Clinical Medicine, and Medical Education. JMIR Medical Education 2023;9:e47274 View
  137. van Heerden A, Bosman S, Swendeman D, Comulada W. Chatbots for HIV Prevention and Care: a Narrative Review. Current HIV/AIDS Reports 2023;20(6):481 View
  138. Takano E, Maruyama H, Takahashi T, Mori K, Nishiyori K, Morita Y, Fukuda T, Kondo I, Ishibashi Y. User Experience of Older People While Using Digital Health Technologies: A Systematic Review. Applied Sciences 2023;13(23):12815 View
  139. Kiuchi K, Otsu K, Hayashi Y. Psychological insights into the research and practice of embodied conversational agents, chatbots and social assistive robots: a systematic meta-review. Behaviour & Information Technology 2023:1 View
  140. Alanzi T, Almahdi R, Alghanim D, Almusmili L, Saleh A, Alanazi S, Alshobaki K, Attar R, Al Qunais A, Alzahrani H, Alshehri R, Sulail A, Alblwi A, Alanzi N, Alanzi N. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Virtual Assistants for Leukemia Self-Management. Cureus 2023 View
  141. Jabir A, Lin X, Martinengo L, Sharp G, Theng Y, Tudor Car L. Attrition in Conversational Agent–Delivered Mental Health Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e48168 View
  142. Huang M, Ki E. Examining the Effect of Anthropomorphic Design Cues on Healthcare Chatbots Acceptance and Organization-Public Relationships: Trust in a Warm Human Vs. a Competent Machine. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 2023:1 View
  143. Ulrich S, Gantenbein A, Zuber V, Von Wyl A, Kowatsch T, Künzli H. Development and Evaluation of a Smartphone-Based Chatbot Coach to Facilitate a Balanced Lifestyle in Individuals With Headaches (BalanceUP App): Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e50132 View
  144. Ding H, Simmich J, Vaezipour A, Andrews N, Russell T. Evaluation framework for conversational agents with artificial intelligence in health interventions: a systematic scoping review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2024;31(3):746 View
  145. Allen C, Neil G, Halbert C, Sterba K, Nietert P, Welch B, Lenert L. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of family cancer history collection tools in oncology clinical practices. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2024;31(3):631 View
  146. Schenker Y, Abdullah S, Arnold R, Schmitz K. Conversational Agents in Palliative Care: Potential Benefits, Risks, and Next Steps. Journal of Palliative Medicine 2024;27(3):296 View
  147. Llanes-Jurado J, Gómez-Zaragozá L, Minissi M, Alcañiz M, Marín-Morales J. Developing conversational Virtual Humans for social emotion elicitation based on large language models. Expert Systems with Applications 2024;246:123261 View
  148. Ni Z, Peng M, Balakrishnan V, Tee V, Azwa I, Saifi R, Nelson L, Vlahov D, Altice F. Implementation of Chatbot Technology in Health Care: Protocol for a Bibliometric Analysis. JMIR Research Protocols 2024;13:e54349 View
  149. Cuciniello M, Amorese T, Greco C, Carrión Z, Vogel C, Cordasco G, Esposito A. Cultural Differences in the Assessment of Synthetic Voices. International Journal of Neural Systems 2024;34(02) View
  150. Habicht J, Viswanathan S, Carrington B, Hauser T, Harper R, Rollwage M. Closing the accessibility gap to mental health treatment with a personalized self-referral chatbot. Nature Medicine 2024;30(2):595 View
  151. Erol Ö, Küçükkaya B, Yenici E. The effect of the intensive care unit nurse manpower on care behaviours and stress level on the nurses. Work 2024:1 View
  152. Cohen Rodrigues T, de Buisonjé D, Reijnders T, Santhanam P, Kowatsch T, Breeman L, Janssen V, Kraaijenhagen R, Atsma D, Evers A. Human cues in eHealth to promote lifestyle change: An experimental field study to examine adherence to self-help interventions. Internet Interventions 2024;35:100726 View
  153. Mirheidari B, Bell S, Harkness K, Blackburn D, Christensen H. Spoken language-based automatic cognitive assessment of stroke survivors. Language and Health 2024 View
  154. Amin S, Uyeda K, Pagano I, Tabangcura K, Taketa R, Terawaki Kawamoto C, Pokhrel P. Virtual Assistants’ Response to Queries About Nicotine Replacement Therapy: A Mixed-Method Analysis. Evaluation & the Health Professions 2024 View
  155. Elfimov D, Elfimova I, Kosterin M, Golubeva A, Andreeva O. Efficiency of Remote Monitoring of Rehabilitation of Patients after Myocardial Infarction. Bulletin of Rehabilitation Medicine 2024;22(6):55 View
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Books/Policy Documents

  1. Gamberini L, Pluchino P, Porto L, Zordan F, Monterosso A, Palanivel K, Fontanari A. HCI International 2021 - Posters. View
  2. Liu C, Zhang B, Peng G. Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions. View
  3. Davids J, Ashrafian H. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. View
  4. Galitsky B. Artificial Intelligence for Healthcare Applications and Management. View
  5. Gupta J, Raychaudhuri N, Lee M. Machine Learning and Autonomous Systems. View
  6. Kowatsch T, Fleisch E. Connected Business. View
  7. Davids J, Ashrafian H. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. View
  8. Datar S, Ferland L, Foo E, Kotlyar M, Holschuh B, Gini M, Michalowski M, Pakhomov S. AI for Disease Surveillance and Pandemic Intelligence. View
  9. Spagnolli A, Gamberini L, D’Agostini E, Cenzato G. Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2021. View
  10. Gibbons M, Shaihk Y, Ayalasomayajula F. Healthcare Information Management Systems. View
  11. Amantea I, Sulis E, Boella G, De Marchi F, Mazzini L, Alloatti F, Bolioli A. Ambient Assisted Living. View
  12. Moreno J, Sánchez-Anguix V, Alberola J, Julián V, Botti V. Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems. View
  13. Demetriadis S, Dimitriadis Y. Augmented Intelligence and Intelligent Tutoring Systems. View
  14. Langer H, Merkel S. Design, Operation and Evaluation of Mobile Communications. View
  15. Stević I, Vukmirović D, Vujović V, Marinković V. Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare. View
  16. Nakata T, Chen S, Saiki S, Nakamura M. Human Interface and the Management of Information. View
  17. Lal M, Neduncheliyan S. Design in the Era of Industry 4.0, Volume 1. View
  18. Basu B, Garala K, Prajapati B. Human‐Machine Interface. View
  19. Oh Y, Arias K, Auster-Gussman L, Graham S. Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management. View
  20. Magni D. Design and Development of Emerging Chatbot Technology. View