Published on in Vol 22 , No 6 (2020) :June

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Technical Metrics Used to Evaluate Health Care Chatbots: Scoping Review

Technical Metrics Used to Evaluate Health Care Chatbots: Scoping Review

Technical Metrics Used to Evaluate Health Care Chatbots: Scoping Review


  1. Zhang J, Oh Y, Lange P, Yu Z, Fukuoka Y. Artificial Intelligence Chatbot Behavior Change Model for Designing Artificial Intelligence Chatbots to Promote Physical Activity and a Healthy Diet: Viewpoint. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(9):e22845 View
  2. Omoregbe N, Ndaman I, Misra S, Abayomi-Alli O, Damaševičius R, Dogra A. Text Messaging-Based Medical Diagnosis Using Natural Language Processing and Fuzzy Logic. Journal of Healthcare Engineering 2020;2020:1 View
  3. Lin J, Joseph T, Parga-Belinkie J, Mandel A, Schumacher R, Neumann K, Scalise L, Gaulton J, Christ L, Leitner K, Rosin R. Development of a practical training method for a healthcare artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot. BMJ Innovations 2021;7(2):441 View
  4. Issom D, Hardy-Dessources M, Romana M, Hartvigsen G, Lovis C. Toward a Conversational Agent to Support the Self-Management of Adults and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease: Usability and Usefulness Study. Frontiers in Digital Health 2021;3 View
  5. Abd-Alrazaq A, Alajlani M, Ali N, Denecke K, Bewick B, Househ M. Perceptions and Opinions of Patients About Mental Health Chatbots: Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(1):e17828 View
  6. Bérubé C, Schachner T, Keller R, Fleisch E, v Wangenheim F, Barata F, Kowatsch T. Voice-Based Conversational Agents for the Prevention and Management of Chronic and Mental Health Conditions: Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(3):e25933 View
  7. Wang J, Hwang G, Chang C. Directions of the 100 most cited chatbot-related human behavior research: A review of academic publications. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence 2021;2:100023 View
  8. Kolenik T, Gams M. Intelligent Cognitive Assistants for Attitude and Behavior Change Support in Mental Health: State-of-the-Art Technical Review. Electronics 2021;10(11):1250 View
  9. Mokmin N, Ibrahim N. The evaluation of chatbot as a tool for health literacy education among undergraduate students. Education and Information Technologies 2021 View
  10. Hwang G, Chang C. A review of opportunities and challenges of chatbots in education. Interactive Learning Environments 2021:1 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Gamberini L, Pluchino P, Porto L, Zordan F, Monterosso A, Palanivel K, Fontanari A. HCI International 2021 - Posters. View
  2. Liu C, Zhang B, Peng G. Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions. View