Published on in Vol 21, No 5 (2019): May

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Reducing Stress and Preventing Depression (RESPOND): Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for High-Ruminating University Students

Reducing Stress and Preventing Depression (RESPOND): Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for High-Ruminating University Students

Reducing Stress and Preventing Depression (RESPOND): Randomized Controlled Trial of Web-Based Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for High-Ruminating University Students

Authors of this article:

Lorna Cook1 Author Orcid Image ;   Mohammod Mostazir2 Author Orcid Image ;   Edward Watkins1 Author Orcid Image


  1. Ehring T. Die Ruminationsfokussierte Kognitive Verhaltenstherapie. Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie 2020;68(3):150 View
  2. Cheng P, Kalmbach D, Castelan A, Murugan N, Drake C. Depression prevention in digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: Is rumination a mediator?. Journal of Affective Disorders 2020;273:434 View
  3. Watkins E, Roberts H. Reflecting on rumination: Consequences, causes, mechanisms and treatment of rumination. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2020;127:103573 View
  4. Lee S, Noh J, Kim K, Kim E, Oh J, Chae J. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among bereaved family members and surviving students two and half years after the Sewol ferry accident in South Korea. Psychiatry Research 2021;296:113666 View
  5. Barnett P, Arundell L, Saunders R, Matthews H, Pilling S. The efficacy of psychological interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders in university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 2021;280:381 View
  6. Newbold A, Warren F, Taylor R, Hulme C, Burnett S, Aas B, Botella C, Burkhardt F, Ehring T, Fontaine J, Frost M, Garcia-Palacios A, Greimel E, Hoessle C, Hovasapian A, Huyghe V, Lochner J, Molinari G, Pekrun R, Platt B, Rosenkranz T, Scherer K, Schlegel K, Schulte-Korne G, Suso C, Voigt V, Watkins E. Promotion of mental health in young adults via mobile phone app: study protocol of the ECoWeB (emotional competence for well-being in Young adults) cohort multiple randomised trials. BMC Psychiatry 2020;20(1) View
  7. Rigabert A, Motrico E, Moreno-Peral P, Resurrección D, Conejo-Cerón S, Cuijpers P, Martín-Gómez C, López-Del-Hoyo Y, Bellón J. Effectiveness of online psychological and psychoeducational interventions to prevent depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review 2020;82:101931 View
  8. Enrique A, Eilert N, Wogan R, Earley C, Duffy D, Palacios J, Timulak L, Richards D. Are Changes in Beliefs About Rumination and in Emotion Regulation Skills Mediators of the Effects of Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression and Anxiety? Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research 2021;45(4):805 View
  9. Umegaki Y, Nakagawa A, Watkins E, Mullan E. A Rumination-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Self-Help Program to Reduce Depressive Rumination in High-Ruminating Japanese Female University Students: A Case Series Study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2022;29(2):468 View
  10. Tang H, Xiong T, Shi J, Chen Y, Liu X, Zhang S, Wang H, Lu Q, Yao Z. Global and reflective rumination are related to suicide attempts among patients experiencing major depressive episodes. BMC Psychiatry 2021;21(1) View
  11. Roberts H, Jacobs R, Bessette K, Crowell S, Westlund-Schreiner M, Thomas L, Easter R, Pocius S, Dillahunt A, Frandsen S, Schubert B, Farstead B, Kerig P, Welsh R, Jago D, Langenecker S, Watkins E. Mechanisms of rumination change in adolescent depression (RuMeChange): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy to reduce ruminative habit and risk of depressive relapse in high-ruminating adolescents. BMC Psychiatry 2021;21(1) View
  12. van Doorn M, Nijhuis L, Egeler M, Daams J, Popma A, van Amelsvoort T, McEnery C, Gleeson J, Öry F, Avis K, Ruigt E, Jaspers M, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Nieman D. Online Indicated Preventive Mental Health Interventions for Youth: A Scoping Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2021;12 View
  13. Ma L, Huang C, Tao R, Cui Z, Schluter P. Meta-analytic review of online guided self-help interventions for depressive symptoms among college students. Internet Interventions 2021;25:100427 View
  14. Joubert A, Grierson A, Chen A, Moulds M, Werner-Seidler A, Mahoney A, Newby J. Managing rumination and worry: A pilot study of an internet intervention targeting repetitive negative thinking in Australian adults. Journal of Affective Disorders 2021;294:483 View
  15. Fletcher A, Jensen M, Vrshek-Schallhorn S. Novel Perspectives on Adversity Exposure, Stress Responding, and Academic Retention Among First- and Continuing-Generation Students. Emerging Adulthood 2023;11(1):175 View
  16. Tonta K, Boyes M, Howell J, McEvoy P, Johnson A, Hasking P. Modeling pathways to non‐suicidal self‐injury: The roles of perfectionism, negative affect, rumination, and attention control. Journal of Clinical Psychology 2022;78(7):1463 View
  17. McKinnon A, Lorenz H, Salkovskis P, Wild J. Abstract thinking as a risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in student paramedics. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2022;35(2):375 View
  18. Robberegt S, Kooiman B, Albers C, Nauta M, Bockting C, Stikkelbroek Y. Personalised app-based relapse prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders in remitted adolescents and young adults: a protocol of the StayFine RCT. BMJ Open 2022;12(12):e058560 View
  19. Furukawa T, Tajika A, Sakata M, Luo Y, Toyomoto R, Horikoshi M, Akechi T, Kawakami N, Nakayama T, Kondo N, Fukuma S, Noma H, Christensen H, Kessler R, Cuijpers P, Wason J. Four 2×2 factorial trials of smartphone CBT to reduce subthreshold depression and to prevent new depressive episodes among adults in the community–RESiLIENT trial (Resilience Enhancement with Smartphone in LIving ENvironmenTs): a master protocol. BMJ Open 2023;13(2):e067850 View
  20. Guzey M, Funk J, Kustermann J, Ehring T. The effect of concreteness training on peri-traumatic processing and intrusive memories following an analogue trauma. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2021;147:103970 View
  21. Liu X, Guo Y, Zhang W, Gao W. Influencing factors, prediction and prevention of depression in college students: A literature review. World Journal of Psychiatry 2022;12(7):860 View
  22. Cuesta-Zamora C, González-Martí I, García-López L, Ros L, Plateau C, Ricarte J. Emotion Dysregulation as a Mediator of the Relationship between Anxiety, Compulsive Exercise and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents. Children 2021;8(12):1088 View
  23. Braun L, Titzler I, Terhorst Y, Freund J, Thielecke J, Ebert D, Baumeister H. Are guided internet-based interventions for the indicated prevention of depression in green professions effective in the long run? Longitudinal analysis of the 6- and 12-month follow-up of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (PROD-A). Internet Interventions 2021;26:100455 View
  24. Robberegt S, Brouwer M, Kooiman B, Stikkelbroek Y, Nauta M, Bockting C. Meta-Analysis: Relapse Prevention Strategies for Depression and Anxiety in Remitted Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2023;62(3):306 View
  25. Edge D, Newbold A, Ehring T, Rosenkranz T, Frost M, Watkins E. Reducing worry and rumination in young adults via a mobile phone app: study protocol of the ECoWeB (Emotional Competence for Well-Being in Young Adults) randomised controlled trial focused on repetitive negative thinking. BMC Psychiatry 2021;21(1) View
  26. Otto M, Lubin R, Rosenfield D, Taylor D, Birk J, Espie C, Shechter A, Edmondson D, Shepherd J, Zvolensky M. The association between race- and ethnicity-related stressors and sleep: the role of rumination and anxiety sensitivity. Sleep 2022;45(10) View
  27. Leong Q, Sridhar S, Blasiak A, Tadeo X, Yeo G, Remus A, Ho D. Characteristics of Mobile Health Platforms for Depression and Anxiety: Content Analysis Through a Systematic Review of the Literature and Systematic Search of Two App Stores. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(2):e27388 View
  28. Gladstone T, Rintell L, Buchholz K, Myers T. Adaptation of an Evidence-Based Online Depression Prevention Intervention for College Students: Intervention Development and Pilot Study Results. Social Sciences 2021;10(10):398 View
  29. Tomoiagă C, David O. The Efficacy of Guided and Unguided Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Reducing Distress in College Students. Games for Health Journal 2022;11(6):403 View
  30. Dawson M, Samek D. Parent and peer social-emotional support as predictors of depressive symptoms in the transition into and out of college. Personality and Individual Differences 2022;192:111588 View
  31. Joubert A, Moulds M, Werner‐Seidler A, Sharrock M, Popovic B, Newby J. Understanding the experience of rumination and worry: A descriptive qualitative survey study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 2022;61(4):929 View
  32. Hitchcock P, Forman E, Rothstein N, Zhang F, Kounios J, Niv Y, Sims C. Rumination Derails Reinforcement Learning With Possible Implications for Ineffective Behavior. Clinical Psychological Science 2022;10(4):714 View
  33. Franzoi I, Sauta M, Barbagli F, Avalle C, Granieri A. Psychological Interventions for Higher Education Students in Europe: A Systematic Literature Review. Youth 2022;2(3):236 View
  34. Mak W, Ng S, Leung F. A Web-Based Stratified Stepped Care Platform for Mental Well-being (TourHeart+): User-Centered Research and Design. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e38504 View
  35. Edge D, Watkins E, Limond J, Mugadza J. The efficacy of self-guided internet and mobile-based interventions for preventing anxiety and depression – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2023;164:104292 View
  36. Kambara K, Matsumoto M, Hako S, Shigematsu J, Yokoyama S, Ogata A. An intervention to promote concrete thinking style in young adults: Effects on depressive symptoms and its protective factors. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2023;81:101857 View
  37. Funk J, Kopf-Beck J, Watkins E, Ehring T. Does an app designed to reduce repetitive negative thinking decrease depression and anxiety in young people? (RETHINK): a randomized controlled prevention trial. Trials 2023;24(1) View
  38. Li S, Corkish B, Richardson C, Christensen H, Werner‐Seidler A. The role of rumination in the relationship between symptoms of insomnia and depression in adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research 2024;33(2) View
  39. ÖZER Ö, KÖKSAL B. Üniversite Öğrencilerine Yönelik Ruh Sağlığı Hizmetlerinde İnternet Tabanlı Müdahaleler: Bir Gözden Geçirme. OSMANGAZİ JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 2023 View
  40. Wen A, Wolitzky-Taylor K, Gibbons R, Craske M. A randomized controlled trial on using predictive algorithm to adapt level of psychological care for community college students: STAND triaging and adapting to level of care study protocol. Trials 2023;24(1) View
  41. Beintner I, Kerber A, Dominke C, Voderholzer U. Improving Mild to Moderate Depression With an App-Based Self-Guided Intervention: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2023;12:e46651 View
  42. Seiferth C, Färber T, Pape M, Schoemann N, Dieberger A, Schroeder S, Herpertz S, Wolstein J, Steins-Loeber S. Differential effects of the individualized gender-sensitive mHealth intervention I-GENDO on eating styles in individuals with overweight and obesity – a randomized controlled trial. BMC Digital Health 2023;1(1) View
  43. Ledur B, Schmitt M, Rossa I, Andretta I. Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavior Interventions for University Students: a Systematic Review. Trends in Psychology 2023 View
  44. Joubert A, Grierson A, Li I, Sharrock M, Moulds M, Werner-Seidler A, Stech E, Mahoney A, Newby J. Managing Rumination and worry: A randomised controlled trial of an internet intervention targeting repetitive negative thinking delivered with and without clinician guidance. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2023;168:104378 View
  45. Singh P, Mishra N. Rumination Moderates the Association between Neuroticism, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Indian Women. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 2023;45(6):614 View
  46. Beogo I, Ramdé J, Anne A, Gagnon M, Sia D, Nguemeleu Tchouaket E. e–Mental Health Program to Prevent Psychological Distress Among French-Speaking International Students in a Linguistic-Cultural Minority Context (Ottawa, Alberta, and Quebec): Protocol for the Implementation and Evaluation of Psy-Web. JMIR Research Protocols 2023;12:e47059 View
  47. Mak W, Tong A, Fu A, Leung I, Jung O, Watkins E, Lui W. Efficacy of Internet‐based rumination‐focused cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness‐based intervention with guided support in reducing risks of depression and anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being 2024;16(2):696 View
  48. Yamasaki K, Sampei A, Miyata H, Ibrahimi S. Relationship between rumination, self-compassion, and psychological health among Japanese university students: A cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE 2024;19(1):e0297691 View
  49. Ferguson E, Busch A, Anderson B, Abrantes A, Pinkston M, Baker J, Stein M, Uebelacker L. Avoidance and Rumination as Predictors of Substance Use, Mental Health, and Pain Outcomes Among People Living With HIV. Behavior Therapy 2024 View
  50. Opie J, Vuong A, Welsh E, Gray R, Pearce N, Marchionda S, Mutch R, Khalil H. Outcomes of Best-Practice Guided Digital Mental Health Interventions for Youth and Young Adults with Emerging Symptoms: Part I. A Systematic Review of Socioemotional Outcomes and Recommendations. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 2024 View
  51. Colmenero‐Navarrete L, García‐Sancho E, Salguero J. Modeling the associations between emotion regulation, suicide crisis syndrome and suicidal behavior: Results in community and clinical samples. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 2024 View
  52. Opie J, Vuong A, Welsh E, Esler T, Khan U, Khalil H. Outcomes of Best-Practice Guided Digital Mental Health Interventions for Youth and Young Adults with Emerging Symptoms: Part II. A Systematic Review of User Experience Outcomes. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 2024 View
  53. Funk J, Takano K, Babl M, Goldstein R, Oberwestersberger R, Kopf-Beck J, Rohleder N, Ehring T. Can an intervention designed to reduce repetitive negative thinking alter the response to a psychosocial stressor? A randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy 2024;178:104547 View
  54. Edge D, Watkins E, Newbold A, Ehring T, Frost M, Rosenkranz T. Evaluating the effects of a self-help mobile phone application on worry and rumination experienced by young adults: A randomised controlled trial. (Preprint). JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2023 View
  55. Reitegger F, Peras I, Wright M, Gasteiger-Klicpera B. Key Components and Content of Effective Evidence-Based Digital Prevention Programs for Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Umbrella Review. Adolescent Research Review 2024 View
  56. Kovács L, Jordan G, Berglund F, Holden B, Niehoff E, Pohl F, Younssi M, Zevallos I, Ágoston C, Varga A, Kökönyei G. Acting as we feel: which emotional responses to the climate crisis motivate climate action. Journal of Environmental Psychology 2024:102327 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Watkins E. Evidence-Based Treatment for Anxiety Disorders and Depression. View
  2. . Evidence-Based Treatment for Anxiety Disorders and Depression. View