Published on in Vol 23, No 10 (2021): October

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/31400, first published .
International Changes in COVID-19 Clinical Trajectories Across 315 Hospitals and 6 Countries: Retrospective Cohort Study

International Changes in COVID-19 Clinical Trajectories Across 315 Hospitals and 6 Countries: Retrospective Cohort Study

International Changes in COVID-19 Clinical Trajectories Across 315 Hospitals and 6 Countries: Retrospective Cohort Study

Authors of this article:

Griffin M Weber 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Harrison G Zhang 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Sehi L'Yi 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Clara-Lea Bonzel 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Chuan Hong 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Paul Avillach 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Alba Gutiérrez-Sacristán 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Nathan P Palmer 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Amelia Li Min Tan 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Xuan Wang 1 Author Orcid Image ;   William Yuan 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Nils Gehlenborg 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Anna Alloni 2 Author Orcid Image ;   Danilo F Amendola 3 Author Orcid Image ;   Antonio Bellasi 4 Author Orcid Image ;   Riccardo Bellazzi 5 Author Orcid Image ;   Michele Beraghi 6 Author Orcid Image ;   Mauro Bucalo 2 Author Orcid Image ;   Luca Chiovato 7 Author Orcid Image ;   Kelly Cho 8 Author Orcid Image ;   Arianna Dagliati 9 Author Orcid Image ;   Hossein Estiri 10 Author Orcid Image ;   Robert W Follett 11 Author Orcid Image ;   Noelia García Barrio 12 Author Orcid Image ;   David A Hanauer 13 Author Orcid Image ;   Darren W Henderson 14 Author Orcid Image ;   Yuk-Lam Ho 8 Author Orcid Image ;   John H Holmes 15, 16 Author Orcid Image ;   Meghan R Hutch 17 Author Orcid Image ;   Ramakanth Kavuluru 18 Author Orcid Image ;   Katie Kirchoff 19 Author Orcid Image ;   Jeffrey G Klann 10 Author Orcid Image ;   Ashok K Krishnamurthy 20 Author Orcid Image ;   Trang T Le 15 Author Orcid Image ;   Molei Liu 21 Author Orcid Image ;   Ne Hooi Will Loh 22 Author Orcid Image ;   Sara Lozano-Zahonero 23 Author Orcid Image ;   Yuan Luo 17 Author Orcid Image ;   Sarah Maidlow 24 Author Orcid Image ;   Adeline Makoudjou 23 Author Orcid Image ;   Alberto Malovini 25 Author Orcid Image ;   Marcelo Roberto Martins 26 Author Orcid Image ;   Bertrand Moal 27 Author Orcid Image ;   Michele Morris 28 Author Orcid Image ;   Danielle L Mowery 15 Author Orcid Image ;   Shawn N Murphy 29 Author Orcid Image ;   Antoine Neuraz 30 Author Orcid Image ;   Kee Yuan Ngiam 31 Author Orcid Image ;   Marina P Okoshi 32 Author Orcid Image ;   Gilbert S Omenn 33 Author Orcid Image ;   Lav P Patel 34 Author Orcid Image ;   Miguel Pedrera Jiménez 12 Author Orcid Image ;   Robson A Prudente 32 Author Orcid Image ;   Malarkodi Jebathilagam Samayamuthu 28 Author Orcid Image ;   Fernando J Sanz Vidorreta 11 Author Orcid Image ;   Emily R Schriver 35 Author Orcid Image ;   Petra Schubert 8 Author Orcid Image ;   Pablo Serrano Balazote 12 Author Orcid Image ;   Byorn WL Tan 36 Author Orcid Image ;   Suzana E Tanni 32 Author Orcid Image ;   Valentina Tibollo 25 Author Orcid Image ;   Shyam Visweswaran 28 Author Orcid Image ;   Kavishwar B Wagholikar 10 Author Orcid Image ;   Zongqi Xia 37 Author Orcid Image ;   Daniela Zöller 23 Author Orcid Image ;   The Consortium For Clinical Characterization Of COVID-19 By EHR (4CE) 1 ;   Isaac S Kohane 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Tianxi Cai 1 Author Orcid Image ;   Andrew M South 38 Author Orcid Image ;   Gabriel A Brat 1 Author Orcid Image

Griffin M Weber   1 * , MD, PhD ;   Harrison G Zhang   1 * , HSDG ;   Sehi L'Yi   1 * , PhD ;   Clara-Lea Bonzel   1 , MSc ;   Chuan Hong   1 , PhD ;   Paul Avillach   1 , MD, PhD ;   Alba Gutiérrez-Sacristán   1 , PhD ;   Nathan P Palmer   1 , PhD ;   Amelia Li Min Tan   1 , BSc, PhD ;   Xuan Wang   1 , PhD ;   William Yuan   1 , PhD ;   Nils Gehlenborg   1 , PhD ;   Anna Alloni   2 , PhD ;   Danilo F Amendola   3 , MSc ;   Antonio Bellasi   4 , MD, PhD ;   Riccardo Bellazzi   5 , MS, PhD ;   Michele Beraghi   6 , MS ;   Mauro Bucalo   2 , MS ;   Luca Chiovato   7 , MD, PhD ;   Kelly Cho   8 , PhD ;   Arianna Dagliati   9 , MS, PhD ;   Hossein Estiri   10 , PhD ;   Robert W Follett   11 , BS ;   Noelia García Barrio   12 , MS ;   David A Hanauer   13 , MS, MD ;   Darren W Henderson   14 , BS ;   Yuk-Lam Ho   8 , MPH ;   John H Holmes   15, 16 , MS, PhD ;   Meghan R Hutch   17 , BS ;   Ramakanth Kavuluru   18 , PhD ;   Katie Kirchoff   19 , MSHI ;   Jeffrey G Klann   10 , MEng, PhD ;   Ashok K Krishnamurthy   20 , PhD ;   Trang T Le   15 , PhD ;   Molei Liu   21 , MSc ;   Ne Hooi Will Loh   22 , MBBS ;   Sara Lozano-Zahonero   23 , PhD ;   Yuan Luo   17 , PhD ;   Sarah Maidlow   24 , AA ;   Adeline Makoudjou   23 , MD ;   Alberto Malovini   25 , PhD ;   Marcelo Roberto Martins   26 , MSc ;   Bertrand Moal   27 , MD, PhD ;   Michele Morris   28 , BA ;   Danielle L Mowery   15 , PhD ;   Shawn N Murphy   29 , MD, PhD ;   Antoine Neuraz   30 , MD, PhD ;   Kee Yuan Ngiam   31 , MBBS, MRCS, MMed ;   Marina P Okoshi   32 , MD, PhD ;   Gilbert S Omenn   33 , MD, PhD ;   Lav P Patel   34 , MS ;   Miguel Pedrera Jiménez   12 , MS ;   Robson A Prudente   32 , PhD ;   Malarkodi Jebathilagam Samayamuthu   28 , MD ;   Fernando J Sanz Vidorreta   11 , BS ;   Emily R Schriver   35 , MS ;   Petra Schubert   8 , MPH ;   Pablo Serrano Balazote   12 , MS, MD ;   Byorn WL Tan   36 , MBBS ;   Suzana E Tanni   32 , MD, PhD ;   Valentina Tibollo   25 , MS ;   Shyam Visweswaran   28 , MD, PhD ;   Kavishwar B Wagholikar   10 , MBBS, PhD ;   Zongqi Xia   37 , MD, PhD ;   Daniela Zöller   23 , PhD ;   The Consortium For Clinical Characterization Of COVID-19 By EHR (4CE)   1 ;   Isaac S Kohane   1 , MD, PhD ;   Tianxi Cai   1 * , ScD ;   Andrew M South   38 * , MS, MD ;   Gabriel A Brat   1 * , MPH, MD

1 Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

2 BIOMERIS (BIOMedical Research Informatics Solutions), Pavia, Italy

3 Clinical Research Unit, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil

4 Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Lugano, Switzerland

5 Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

6 Information Technology Department, Azienda Socio-Sanitaria Territoriale di Pavia, Pavia, Italy

7 Unit of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB IRCCS, Pavia, Italy

8 Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, United States

9 Department of Electrical Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

10 Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

11 Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

12 Health Informatics, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

13 Department of Learning Health Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

14 Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States

15 Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States

16 Institute for Biomedical Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States

17 Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

18 Institute for Biomedical Informatics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States

19 Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States

20 Department of Computer Science, Renaissance Computing Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

21 Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States

22 Department of Anaesthesia, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore

23 Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

24 Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research Informatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

25 Laboratory of Informatics and Systems Engineering for Clinical Research, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB IRCCS, Pavia, Italy

26 Clinical Hospital of Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil

27 Informatique et archivistique médicales unit, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France

28 Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

29 Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

30 Department of Biomedical Informatics, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malade, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, University of Paris, Paris, France

31 Department of Biomedical Informatics, Institute for Digital Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore

32 Internal Medicine Department, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil

33 Department of Computational Medicine & Bioinformatics, Internal Medicine, Human Genetics, and Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

34 Division of Medical Informatics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States

35 Data Analytics Center, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA, United States

36 Department of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore

37 Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

38 Section of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Brenner Children's Hospital, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, United States

*these authors contributed equally

Corresponding Author:

  • Tianxi Cai, ScD
  • Department of Biomedical Informatics
  • Harvard Medical School
  • 10 Shattuck St
  • Boston, MA, 02115
  • United States
  • Phone: 1 6175488520
  • Email: tcai@hsph.harvard.edu