Published on in Vol 22, No 7 (2020): July

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/16021, first published .
Effectiveness and Safety of Using Chatbots to Improve Mental Health: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Effectiveness and Safety of Using Chatbots to Improve Mental Health: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Effectiveness and Safety of Using Chatbots to Improve Mental Health: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Journals

  1. Abd-Alrazaq A, Safi Z, Alajlani M, Warren J, Househ M, Denecke K. Technical Metrics Used to Evaluate Health Care Chatbots: Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(6):e18301 View
  2. Abd-Alrazaq A, Alajlani M, Ali N, Denecke K, Bewick B, Househ M. Perceptions and Opinions of Patients About Mental Health Chatbots: Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(1):e17828 View
  3. Caballer A, Belmonte O, Castillo A, Gasco A, Sansano E, Montoliu R. Equivalence of chatbot and paper-and-pencil versions of the De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Current Psychology 2022;41(9):6225 View
  4. Loo Gee B, Batterham P, Gulliver A, Reynolds J, Griffiths K. An Ecological Momentary Intervention for people with social anxiety: A descriptive case study. Informatics for Health and Social Care 2021;46(4):370 View
  5. Dimitri P, Fernandez-Luque L, Banerjee I, Bergadá I, Calliari L, Dahlgren J, de Arriba A, Lapatto R, Reinehr T, Senniappan S, Thomas-Teinturier C, Tsai M, Anuar Zaini A, Bagha M, Koledova E. An eHealth Framework for Managing Pediatric Growth Disorders and Growth Hormone Therapy. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(5):e27446 View
  6. Kolenik T, Gams M. Intelligent Cognitive Assistants for Attitude and Behavior Change Support in Mental Health: State-of-the-Art Technical Review. Electronics 2021;10(11):1250 View
  7. OGOSI AUQUI J. Chatbot del proceso de aprendizaje universitario: Una revisión sistemática. Alpha Centauri 2021;2(2):29 View
  8. Beilharz F, Sukunesan S, Rossell S, Kulkarni J, Sharp G. Development of a Positive Body Image Chatbot (KIT) With Young People and Parents/Carers: Qualitative Focus Group Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(6):e27807 View
  9. Siedlikowski S, Noël L, Moynihan S, Robin M. Chloe for COVID-19: Evolution of an Intelligent Conversational Agent to Address Infodemic Management Needs During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(9):e27283 View
  10. Mauriello M, Tantivasadakarn N, Mora-Mendoza M, Lincoln E, Hon G, Nowruzi P, Simon D, Hansen L, Goenawan N, Kim J, Gowda N, Jurafsky D, Paredes P. A Suite of Mobile Conversational Agents for Daily Stress Management (Popbots): Mixed Methods Exploratory Study. JMIR Formative Research 2021;5(9):e25294 View
  11. Guo F, Han R, Sun Y, Sun L, Luo T, Zheng L, Gao C. The associations between COVID-19 vaccination and psychological disorders among healthcare workers in China. Journal of Affective Disorders 2022;318:40 View
  12. Beattie A, High A. I Get by With a Little Help From My Bots: Implications of Machine Agents in the Context of Social Support. Human-Machine Communication 2022;4:151 View
  13. Aggarwal A, Tam C, Wu D, Li X, Qiao S. Artificial Intelligence–Based Chatbots for Promoting Health Behavioral Changes: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e40789 View
  14. Rohrbach P, Dingemans A, Spinhoven P, Van Ginkel J, Fokkema M, Wilderjans T, Bauer S, Van Furth E. Effectiveness of an online self‐help program, expert‐patient support, and their combination for eating disorders: Results from a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2022;55(10):1361 View
  15. Kocaballi A, Sezgin E, Clark L, Carroll J, Huang Y, Huh-Yoo J, Kim J, Kocielnik R, Lee Y, Mamykina L, Mitchell E, Moore R, Murali P, Mynatt E, Park S, Pasta A, Richards D, Silva L, Smriti D, Spillane B, Zhang Z, Zubatiy T. Design and Evaluation Challenges of Conversational Agents in Health Care and Well-being: Selective Review Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(11):e38525 View
  16. Denecke K, Abd-Alrazaq A, Househ M, Warren J. Evaluation Metrics for Health Chatbots: A Delphi Study. Methods of Information in Medicine 2021;60(05/06):171 View
  17. Moilanen J, van Berkel N, Visuri A, Gadiraju U, van der Maden W, Hosio S. Supporting mental health self-care discovery through a chatbot. Frontiers in Digital Health 2023;5 View
  18. Boucher E, Harake N, Ward H, Stoeckl S, Vargas J, Minkel J, Parks A, Zilca R. Artificially intelligent chatbots in digital mental health interventions: a review. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2021;18(sup1):37 View
  19. González A, Geiskkovitch D, Young J. Say what you want, I’m not listening!. i-com 2023;22(1):19 View
  20. Noble J, Zamani A, Gharaat M, Merrick D, Maeda N, Lambe Foster A, Nikolaidis I, Goud R, Stroulia E, Agyapong V, Greenshaw A, Lambert S, Gallson D, Porter K, Turner D, Zaiane O. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating an Artificial Intelligence–Guided Mental Health Resource Navigation Chatbot for Health Care Workers and Their Families During and Following the COVID-19 Pandemic: Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study. JMIR Research Protocols 2022;11(7):e33717 View
  21. Scerri A, Morin K. Using chatbots like ChatGPT to support nursing practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2023;32(15-16):4211 View
  22. Boggiss A, Consedine N, Hopkins S, Silvester C, Jefferies C, Hofman P, Serlachius A. Improving the Well-being of Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Qualitative Study Exploring Acceptability and Clinical Usability of a Self-compassion Chatbot. JMIR Diabetes 2023;8:e40641 View
  23. Bartlett J, Fisher E, Liikkanen S, Turunen J, Skog M, Eccleston C. The Design and Development of an Embodied Semi-Autonomous Mentoring Intelligence (SAMI) for Use in Virtual Reality Interventions, Operationalized for the Self-Management of Chronic Pain. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2022;3 View
  24. Puspitasari I, Rinawan F, Purnama W, Susiarno H, Susanti A. Development of a Chatbot for Pregnant Women on a Posyandu Application in Indonesia: From Qualitative Approach to Decision Tree Method. Informatics 2022;9(4):88 View
  25. Schick A, Feine J, Morana S, Maedche A, Reininghaus U. Validity of Chatbot Use for Mental Health Assessment: Experimental Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2022;10(10):e28082 View
  26. He Y, Yang L, Zhu X, Wu B, Zhang S, Qian C, Tian T. Mental Health Chatbot for Young Adults With Depressive Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Single-Blind, Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(11):e40719 View
  27. Matheson E, Smith H, Amaral A, Meireles J, Almeida M, Mora G, Leon C, Gertner G, Ferrario N, Suarez Battan L, Linardon J, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Diedrichs P. Improving body image at scale among Brazilian adolescents: study protocol for the co-creation and randomised trial evaluation of a chatbot intervention. BMC Public Health 2021;21(1) View
  28. Reininghaus E, Dalkner N. Robotics in psychiatry – Fiction or reality?. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2023;70:17 View
  29. Li C, Yang F, Yang B, Chen W, Wang Q, Huang H, Liu Q, Luo D, Wang X, Ruan J. Experiences and challenges faced by community mental health workers when providing care to people with mental illness: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry 2022;22(1) View
  30. van Bussel M, Odekerken–Schröder G, Ou C, Swart R, Jacobs M. Analyzing the determinants to accept a virtual assistant and use cases among cancer patients: a mixed methods study. BMC Health Services Research 2022;22(1) View
  31. Zhou X, Edirippulige S, Bai X, Bambling M. Are online mental health interventions for youth effective? A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 2021;27(10):638 View
  32. Eisenstadt M, Liverpool S, Infanti E, Ciuvat R, Carlsson C. Mobile Apps That Promote Emotion Regulation, Positive Mental Health, and Well-being in the General Population: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JMIR Mental Health 2021;8(11):e31170 View
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  34. Chua J, Choolani M, Chee C, Chan Y, Lalor J, Chong Y, Shorey S. Insights of Parents and Parents‐To‐Be in Using Chatbots to Improve Their Preconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Health: A Mixed Studies Review. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 2023;68(4):480 View
  35. Parmar P, Ryu J, Pandya S, Sedoc J, Agarwal S. Health-focused conversational agents in person-centered care: a review of apps. npj Digital Medicine 2022;5(1) View
  36. Marciano L, Saboor S. Reinventing mental health care in youth through mobile approaches: Current status and future steps. Frontiers in Psychology 2023;14 View
  37. Lee Y, Hwang G, Chen P. Impacts of an AI-based chabot on college students’ after-class review, academic performance, self-efficacy, learning attitude, and motivation. Educational technology research and development 2022;70(5):1843 View
  38. Sasseville M, Barony Sanchez R, Yameogo A, Bergeron-Drolet L, Bergeron F, Gagnon M. Interactive Conversational Agents for Health Promotion, Prevention, and Care: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Systematic Scoping Review. JMIR Research Protocols 2022;11(10):e40265 View
  39. Darley S, Coulson T, Peek N, Moschogianis S, van der Veer S, Wong D, Brown B. Understanding How the Design and Implementation of Online Consultations Affect Primary Care Quality: Systematic Review of Evidence With Recommendations for Designers, Providers, and Researchers. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(10):e37436 View
  40. Fitzsimmons‐Craft E, Chan W, Smith A, Firebaugh M, Fowler L, Topooco N, DePietro B, Wilfley D, Taylor C, Jacobson N. Effectiveness of a chatbot for eating disorders prevention: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2022;55(3):343 View
  41. De Witte N, Joris S, Van Assche E, Van Daele T. Technological and Digital Interventions for Mental Health and Wellbeing: An Overview of Systematic Reviews. Frontiers in Digital Health 2021;3 View
  42. Hamdoun S, Monteleone R, Bookman T, Michael K. AI-Based and Digital Mental Health Apps: Balancing Need and Risk. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 2023;42(1):25 View
  43. Moulya S, Pragathi T. Mental Health Assist and Diagnosis Conversational Interface using Logistic Regression Model for Emotion and Sentiment Analysis. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2022;2161(1):012039 View
  44. Liu H, Peng H, Song X, Xu C, Zhang M. Using AI chatbots to provide self-help depression interventions for university students: A randomized trial of effectiveness. Internet Interventions 2022;27:100495 View
  45. Li Y, Liang S, Zhu B, Liu X, Li J, Chen D, Qin J, Bressington D. Feasibility and effectiveness of artificial intelligence-driven conversational agents in healthcare interventions: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2023;143:104494 View
  46. Matheson E, Smith H, Amaral A, Meireles J, Almeida M, Linardon J, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, Diedrichs P. Using Chatbot Technology to Improve Brazilian Adolescents’ Body Image and Mental Health at Scale: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2023;11:e39934 View
  47. Noh E, Won J, Jo S, Hahm D, Lee H. Conversational Agents for Body Weight Management: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e42238 View
  48. Prescott J, Hanley T. Therapists’ attitudes towards the use of AI in therapeutic practice: considering the therapeutic alliance. Mental Health and Social Inclusion 2023;27(2):177 View
  49. Achtyes E, Glenn T, Monteith S, Geddes J, Whybrow P, Martini J, Bauer M. Telepsychiatry in an Era of Digital Mental Health Startups. Current Psychiatry Reports 2023;25(6):263 View
  50. Kannampallil T, Ajilore O, Lv N, Smyth J, Wittels N, Ronneberg C, Kumar V, Xiao L, Dosala S, Barve A, Zhang A, Tan K, Cao K, Patel C, Gerber B, Johnson J, Kringle E, Ma J. Effects of a virtual voice-based coach delivering problem-solving treatment on emotional distress and brain function: a pilot RCT in depression and anxiety. Translational Psychiatry 2023;13(1) View
  51. van der Schyff E, Ridout B, Amon K, Forsyth R, Campbell A. Providing Self-Led Mental Health Support Through an Artificial Intelligence–Powered Chat Bot (Leora) to Meet the Demand of Mental Health Care. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e46448 View
  52. Opel D, Kious B, Cohen I. AI as a Mental Health Therapist for Adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics 2023;177(12):1253 View
  53. Li L, Peng W, Rheu M. Factors Predicting Intentions of Adoption and Continued Use of Artificial Intelligence Chatbots for Mental Health: Examining the Role of UTAUT Model, Stigma, Privacy Concerns, and Artificial Intelligence Hesitancy. Telemedicine and e-Health 2024;30(3):722 View
  54. Durden E, Pirner M, Rapoport S, Williams A, Robinson A, Forman-Hoffman V. Changes in stress, burnout, and resilience associated with an 8-week intervention with relational agent “Woebot”. Internet Interventions 2023;33:100637 View
  55. Wrightson-Hester A, Anderson G, Dunstan J, McEvoy P, Sutton C, Myers B, Egan S, Tai S, Johnston-Hollitt M, Chen W, Gedeon T, Mansell W. An Artificial Therapist (Manage Your Life Online) to Support the Mental Health of Youth: Co-Design and Case Series. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e46849 View
  56. Nadarzynski T, Lunt A, Knights N, Bayley J, Llewellyn C. “But can chatbots understand sex?” Attitudes towards artificial intelligence chatbots amongst sexual and reproductive health professionals: An exploratory mixed-methods study. International Journal of STD & AIDS 2023;34(11):809 View
  57. Janevic M, Murnane E, Fillingim R, Kerns R, Reid M. Mapping the Design Space of Technology-Based Solutions for Better Chronic Pain Care: Introducing the Pain Tech Landscape. Psychosomatic Medicine 2023;85(7):612 View
  58. AKYAZI K, BAŞTEMUR Ş. Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 2024;16(1):16 View
  59. Brinsley J, Singh B, Maher C. A Digital Lifestyle Program for Psychological Distress, Wellbeing and Return-to-Work: A Proof-of-Concept Study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2023;104(11):1903 View
  60. Grodniewicz J, Hohol M. Waiting for a digital therapist: three challenges on the path to psychotherapy delivered by artificial intelligence. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2023;14 View
  61. Singh B, Olds T, Brinsley J, Dumuid D, Virgara R, Matricciani L, Watson A, Szeto K, Eglitis E, Miatke A, Simpson C, Vandelanotte C, Maher C. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of chatbots on lifestyle behaviours. npj Digital Medicine 2023;6(1) View
  62. Lv N, Kannampallil T, Xiao L, Ronneberg C, Kumar V, Wittels N, Ajilore O, Smyth J, Ma J. Association Between User Interaction and Treatment Response of a Voice-Based Coach for Treating Depression and Anxiety: Secondary Analysis of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e49715 View
  63. Kang A, Hetrick S, Cargo T, Hopkins S, Ludin N, Bodmer S, Stevenson K, Holt-Quick C, Stasiak K. Exploring Young Adults’ Views About Aroha, a Chatbot for Stress Associated With the COVID-19 Pandemic: Interview Study Among Students. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e44556 View
  64. Lee S, Ju N, Lee K. Service chatbot: Co-citation and big data analysis toward a review and research agenda. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 2023;194:122722 View
  65. Hopman K, Richards D, Norberg M. A Digital Coach to Promote Emotion Regulation Skills. Multimodal Technologies and Interaction 2023;7(6):57 View
  66. Bin-Nashwan S, Sadallah M, Bouteraa M. Use of ChatGPT in academia: Academic integrity hangs in the balance. Technology in Society 2023;75:102370 View
  67. Lopes E, Jain G, Carlbring P, Pareek S. Talking Mental Health: a Battle of Wits Between Humans and AI. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science 2023 View
  68. Xue J, Zhang B, Zhao Y, Zhang Q, Zheng C, Jiang J, Li H, Liu N, Li Z, Fu W, Peng Y, Logan J, Zhang J, Xiang X. Evaluation of the Current State of Chatbots for Digital Health: Scoping Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e47217 View
  69. Kiuchi K, Otsu K, Hayashi Y. Psychological insights into the research and practice of embodied conversational agents, chatbots and social assistive robots: a systematic meta-review. Behaviour & Information Technology 2023:1 View
  70. Ding H, Simmich J, Vaezipour A, Andrews N, Russell T. Evaluation framework for conversational agents with artificial intelligence in health interventions: a systematic scoping review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2023 View
  71. Ulrich S, Gantenbein A, Zuber V, Von Wyl A, Kowatsch T, Künzli H. Development and Evaluation of a Smartphone-Based Chatbot Coach to Facilitate a Balanced Lifestyle in Individuals With Headaches (BalanceUP App): Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e50132 View
  72. Nkabane - Nkholongo E, Mokgatle M, Jack B, Julce C, Bickmore T. Usability and Acceptability of the Conversational Agent “Nthabi” Health Education Application For Young Women in Lesotho: A Clinical Trial (Preprint). JMIR Human Factors 2023 View
  73. Heston T. Safety of Large Language Models in Addressing Depression. Cureus 2023 View
  74. Li H, Zhang R, Lee Y, Kraut R, Mohr D. Systematic review and meta-analysis of AI-based conversational agents for promoting mental health and well-being. npj Digital Medicine 2023;6(1) View
  75. De Freitas J, Uğuralp A, Oğuz‐Uğuralp Z, Puntoni S. Chatbots and mental health: Insights into the safety of generative AI. Journal of Consumer Psychology 2023 View
  76. Siddique S, Haque M, George R, Gupta K, Gupta D, Faruk M. Survey on Machine Learning Biases and Mitigation Techniques. Digital 2023;4(1):1 View
  77. Cuciniello M, Amorese T, Greco C, Callejas Carrión Z, Vogel C, Cordasco G, Esposito A, Duradoni M. A Synthetic Voice for an Assistive Conversational Agent: A Survey to Discover Italian Preferences regarding Synthetic Voice’s Gender and Quality Level. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies 2023;2023:1 View
  78. Xygkou A, Siriaraya P, She W, Covaci A, Ang C. “Can I be More Social with a Chatbot?”: Social Connectedness Through Interactions of Autistic Adults with a Conversational Virtual Human. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 2024:1 View
  79. Goktas P, Kucukkaya A, Karacay P. Utilizing GPT 4.0 with prompt learning in nursing education: A case study approach based on Benner's theory. Teaching and Learning in Nursing 2024;19(2):e358 View
  80. Liu I, Liu F, Xiao Y, Huang Y, Wu S, Ni S. Investigating the Key Success Factors of Chatbot-Based Positive Psychology Intervention with Retrieval- and Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (GPT)-Based Chatbots. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 2024:1 View
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Books/Policy Documents

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  13. Koukopoulos A, Danias N. Inclusivity and Accessibility in Digital Health. View
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