Published on in Vol 22, No 12 (2020): December

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
COVID-19 Contact-Tracing Apps: Analysis of the Readability of Privacy Policies

COVID-19 Contact-Tracing Apps: Analysis of the Readability of Privacy Policies

COVID-19 Contact-Tracing Apps: Analysis of the Readability of Privacy Policies

Authors of this article:

Melvyn Zhang1 Author Orcid Image ;   Aloysius Chow1 Author Orcid Image ;   Helen Smith1 Author Orcid Image


  1. Zimmermann B, Fiske A, Prainsack B, Hangel N, McLennan S, Buyx A. Early Perceptions of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps in German-Speaking Countries: Comparative Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(2):e25525 View
  2. Seto E, Challa P, Ware P. Adoption of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps: A Balance Between Privacy and Effectiveness. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(3):e25726 View
  3. O'Connell J, Abbas M, Beecham S, Buckley J, Chochlov M, Fitzgerald B, Glynn L, Johnson K, Laffey J, McNicholas B, Nuseibeh B, O'Callaghan M, O'Keeffe I, Razzaq A, Rekanar K, Richardson I, Simpkin A, Storni C, Tsvyatkova D, Walsh J, Welsh T, O'Keeffe D. Best Practice Guidance for Digital Contact Tracing Apps: A Cross-disciplinary Review of the Literature. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2021;9(6):e27753 View
  4. Blacklow S, Lisker S, Ng M, Sarkar U, Lyles C. Usability, inclusivity, and content evaluation of COVID-19 contact tracing apps in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2021;28(9):1982 View
  5. Barbieri D, Giuliani E, Del Prete A, Losi A, Villani M, Barbieri A. How Artificial Intelligence and New Technologies Can Help the Management of the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021;18(14):7648 View
  6. Panchal M, Singh S, Rodriguez-Villegas E. Analysis of the factors affecting the adoption and compliance of the NHS COVID-19 mobile application: a national cross-sectional survey in England. BMJ Open 2021;11(8):e053395 View
  7. Walrave M, Waeterloos C, Ponnet K. Reasons for Nonuse, Discontinuation of Use, and Acceptance of Additional Functionalities of a COVID-19 Contact Tracing App: Cross-sectional Survey Study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance 2022;8(1):e22113 View
  8. Sideri K, Prainsack B. COVID-19 contact tracing apps and the governance of collective action: social nudges, deliberation, and solidarity in Europe and beyond. Policy Studies 2023;44(1):132 View
  9. Ong A, Prasetyo Y, Yuduang N, Nadlifatin R, Persada S, Robas K, Chuenyindee T, Buaphiban T. Utilization of Random Forest Classifier and Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Factors Influencing the Perceived Usability of COVID-19 Contact Tracing “MorChana” in Thailand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022;19(13):7979 View
  10. Guazzini A, Fiorenza M, Panerai G, Duradoni M. What Went Wrong? Predictors of Contact Tracing Adoption in Italy during COVID-19 Pandemic. Future Internet 2021;13(11):286 View
  11. Baik J, Jang E. Where horizontal and vertical surveillances meet: Sense-making of US COVID-19 contact-tracing apps during a health crisis. Mobile Media & Communication 2022;10(3):468 View
  12. Yeung A, Wochele-Thoma T, Eibensteiner F, Klager E, Hribersek M, Parvanov E, Hrg D, Völkl-Kernstock S, Kletecka-Pulker M, Schaden E, Willschke H, Atanasov A. Official Websites Providing Information on COVID-19 Vaccination: Readability and Content Analysis. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance 2022;8(3):e34003 View
  13. De S, Shukla R. An analysis of privacy policies of publicCOVID‐19 apps: Evidence from India. Journal of Public Affairs 2022;22(S1) View
  14. Hafizh M, Badri Y, Mahmud S, Hafez A, Choe P. COVID-19 vaccine willingness and hesitancy among residents in Qatar: a quantitative analysis based on machine learning. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 2022;32(7):899 View
  15. Bardus M, Al Daccache M, Maalouf N, Al Sarih R, Elhajj I. Data Management and Privacy Policy of COVID-19 Contact-Tracing Apps: Systematic Review and Content Analysis. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2022;10(7):e35195 View
  16. Moon H, Lee G, Cho Y. Readability of Korean-Language COVID-19 Information from the South Korean National COVID-19 Portal Intended for the General Public: Cross-sectional Infodemiology Study. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(3):e30085 View
  17. Hart J, Summer A, Yadav K, Peace S, Hong D, Konu M, Clapp J. Content and Communication of Inpatient Family Visitation Policies During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Sequential Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(9):e28897 View
  18. Huang Y, Obada-Obieh B, Lokam S, Beznosov K. Users' Expectations, Experiences, and Concerns With COVID Alert, an Exposure-Notification App. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2022;6(CSCW2):1 View
  19. Oyibo K, Sahu K, Oetomo A, Morita P. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Contact Tracing Applications: Systematic Review and Recommendations. Frontiers in Digital Health 2022;4 View
  20. Ho K, Chiu D, Sayama K. When Privacy, Distrust, and Misinformation Cause Worry About Using COVID-19 Contact-Tracing Apps. IEEE Internet Computing 2023;27(2):7 View
  21. Jiang J, Zheng Z. Personal Information Protection and Privacy Policy Compliance of Health Code Apps in China: Scale Development and Content Analysis. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2023;11:e48714 View
  22. Zou Y, Di J. Health Code as ‘access infrastructure’: Innovative practices and concerns of mediated governance. Global Media and China 2023;8(3):381 View
  23. Holl F, Schobel J, Swoboda W. Mobile Apps for COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Healthcare 2024;12(2):139 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Al-Jaroodi J, Mohamed N. Digital Innovation for Healthcare in COVID-19 Pandemic: Strategies and Solutions. View
  2. Raghavendra G, Mahesh S, Chandra Sekhara Rao M. Emerging Technologies in Computer Engineering: Cognitive Computing and Intelligent IoT. View
  3. Weitzman E, Floyd M. Diabetes Digital Health and Telehealth. View
  4. Prathibha S, Nirmal Raja K, Shyamkumar M, Kirthiga M. Data Engineering for Smart Systems. View
  5. Adetunji C, Olaniyan O, Adeyomoye O, Dare A, Adeniyi M, Alex E, Rebezov M, Petukhova E, Shariati M. Assessing COVID-19 and Other Pandemics and Epidemics using Computational Modelling and Data Analysis. View