Published on in Vol 21, No 1 (2019): January

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Virtual Reality for Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration

Virtual Reality for Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration

Virtual Reality for Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration


  1. Klemenc-Ketis Z, Zafošnik U, Poplas Susič A. An innovative approach to educating primary health care teams about medical emergencies. Education for Primary Care 2020;31(1):44 View
  2. Babini M, Kulish V, Namazi H. Physiological State and Learning Ability of Students in Normal and Virtual Reality Conditions: Complexity-Based Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(6):e17945 View
  3. Lerner D, Mohr S, Schild J, Göring M, Luiz T. An Immersive Multi-User Virtual Reality for Emergency Simulation Training: Usability Study. JMIR Serious Games 2020;8(3):e18822 View
  4. Kyaw B, Posadzki P, Dunleavy G, Semwal M, Divakar U, Hervatis V, Tudor Car L. Offline Digital Education for Medical Students: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(3):e13165 View
  5. Tropea J, Bicknell R, Nestel D, Brand C, Johnson C, Paul S, Le B, Lim W. Simulation training in non-cancer palliative care for healthcare workers: a systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning 2020:bmjstel-2019-000570 View
  6. Tudor Car L, Kyaw B, Dunleavy G, Smart N, Semwal M, Rotgans J, Low-Beer N, Campbell J. Digital Problem-Based Learning in Health Professions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(2):e12945 View
  7. Steinberger J, Qureshi S. The Role of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Contemporary Spine Surgery. Contemporary Spine Surgery 2020;21(8):1 View
  8. Divakar U, Nazeha N, Posadzki P, Jarbrink K, Bajpai R, Ho A, Campbell J, Feder G, Car J. Digital Education of Health Professionals on the Management of Domestic Violence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(5):e13868 View
  9. Zertuche J, Connors J, Scheinman A, Kothari N, Wong K. Using virtual reality as a replacement for hospital tours during residency interviews. Medical Education Online 2020;25(1):1777066 View
  10. Brusamento S, Kyaw B, Whiting P, Li L, Tudor Car L. Digital Health Professions Education in the Field of Pediatrics: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(9):e14231 View
  11. Frøland T, Heldal I, Sjøholt G, Ersvær E. Games on Mobiles via Web or Virtual Reality Technologies: How to Support Learning for Biomedical Laboratory Science Education. Information 2020;11(4):195 View
  12. Vseteckova J, Dadova K, Gracia R, Ryan G, Borgstrom E, Abington J, Gopinath M, Pappas Y. Barriers and facilitators to adherence to walking group exercise in older people living with dementia in the community: a systematic review. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity 2020;17(1) View
  13. Martinengo L, Yeo N, Markandran K, Olsson M, Kyaw B, Car L. Digital health professions education on chronic wound management: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2020;104:103512 View
  14. Feng D, Liu Y, Mazloomi M, Limaye A, Turner M, Evans P. A virtual reality system to augment teaching of wood structure and protection. International Wood Products Journal 2020;11(2):46 View
  15. Lelevé A, McDaniel T, Rossa C. Haptic Training Simulation. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2020;1 View
  16. Losada J, Árias F, Álvarez F, Tamayo G. Hospital virtual «José M. Rivera»: 10 años simulando. Educación Médica 2021;22:317 View
  17. Yamakawa M, Sung H, Tungpunkom P. Virtual reality education for dementia care: a scoping review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis 2020;18(9):2075 View
  18. Kyaw B, Tudor Car L, van Galen L, van Agtmael M, Costelloe C, Ajuebor O, Campbell J, Car J. Health Professions Digital Education on Antibiotic Management: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(9):e14984 View
  19. Rouleau G, Gagnon M, Côté J, Payne-Gagnon J, Hudson E, Dubois C, Bouix-Picasso J. Effects of E-Learning in a Continuing Education Context on Nursing Care: Systematic Review of Systematic Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed-Studies Reviews. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(10):e15118 View
  20. Posadzki P, Bala M, Kyaw B, Semwal M, Divakar U, Koperny M, Sliwka A, Car J. Offline Digital Education for Postregistration Health Professions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(4):e12968 View
  21. Blasco J, Igual-Camacho C, Blasco M, Antón-Antón V, Ortiz-Llueca l, Roig-Casasús S. The efficacy of virtual reality tools for total knee replacement rehabilitation: A systematic review. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 2021;37(6):682 View
  22. Kononowicz A, Woodham L, Edelbring S, Stathakarou N, Davies D, Saxena N, Tudor Car L, Carlstedt-Duke J, Car J, Zary N. Virtual Patient Simulations in Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(7):e14676 View
  23. Hanson J, Andersen P, Dunn P. The effects of a virtual learning environment compared with an individual handheld device on pharmacology knowledge acquisition, satisfaction and comfort ratings. Nurse Education Today 2020;92:104518 View
  24. Kyaw B, Posadzki P, Paddock S, Car J, Campbell J, Tudor Car L. Effectiveness of Digital Education on Communication Skills Among Medical Students: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(8):e12967 View
  25. Chen F, Leng Y, Ge J, Wang D, Li C, Chen B, Sun Z. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in Nursing Education: Meta-Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(9):e18290 View
  26. Chouvarda I, Mountford N, Trajkovik V, Loncar-Turukalo T, Cusack T. Leveraging Interdisciplinary Education Toward Securing the Future of Connected Health Research in Europe: Qualitative Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(11):e14020 View
  27. Vagg T, Balta J, Bolger A, Lone M. Multimedia in Education: What do the Students Think?. Health Professions Education 2020;6(3):325 View
  28. Bréchet L, Hausmann S, Mange R, Herbelin B, Blanke O, Serino A. Subjective feeling of re‐experiencing past events using immersive virtual reality prevents a loss of episodic memory. Brain and Behavior 2020;10(6) View
  29. Watari T, Tokuda Y, Owada M, Onigata K. The Utility of Virtual Patient Simulations for Clinical Reasoning Education. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020;17(15):5325 View
  30. Car J, Carlstedt-Duke J, Tudor Car L, Posadzki P, Whiting P, Zary N, Atun R, Majeed A, Campbell J. Digital Education in Health Professions: The Need for Overarching Evidence Synthesis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2019;21(2):e12913 View
  31. Martinengo L, Yeo N, Tang Z, Markandran K, Kyaw B, Tudor Car L. Digital Education for the Management of Chronic Wounds in Health Care Professionals: Protocol for a Systematic Review by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. JMIR Research Protocols 2019;8(3):e12488 View
  32. Kelly D, O'Neill M, Salaja B, O'Mahony K, Dixon M. Acceptability and effectiveness of a 3D virtual reality cardiovascular lesson. International Paramedic Practice 2019;9(3):67 View
  33. Barrie M, Socha J, Mansour L, Patterson E. Mixed Reality in Medical Education: A Narrative Literature Review. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care 2019;8(1):28 View
  34. Persky S, Dolwick A. Olfactory Perception and Presence in a Virtual Reality Food Environment. Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2020;1 View
  35. Henricksen J, Troy L, Siefkes H. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Simulation Use Survey*. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2020;21(10):e908 View
  36. Nadkarni V. Emerging Prevalence of Simulation-Based Education in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Training: We Have Come a Long Way, (Sim)baby!*. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2020;21(10):909 View
  37. Berg H, Steinsbekk A. The effect of self-practicing systematic clinical observations in a multiplayer, immersive, interactive virtual reality application versus physical equipment: a randomized controlled trial. Advances in Health Sciences Education 2021;26(2):667 View
  38. Chang S, Kuo M, Lin Y, Chen S, Yang Y, Cheng H, Yang L, Kao S, Lee F. Virtual reality informative aids increase residents’ atrial fibrillation ablation procedures-related knowledge and patients’ satisfaction. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 2021;84(1):25 View
  39. Yang D, Wang Y, Mei S. How to balance online healthcare platforms and offline systems? A supply chain management perspective. Managerial and Decision Economics 2021;42(2):502 View
  40. Zhou Y, Li Z, Li Y. Interdisciplinary collaboration between nursing and engineering in health care: A scoping review. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2021;117:103900 View
  41. Kuhn S, Huettl F, Deutsch K, Kirchgässner E, Huber T, Kneist W. Chirurgische Ausbildung im digitalen Zeitalter – Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality und Robotik im Medizinstudium. Zentralblatt für Chirurgie - Zeitschrift für Allgemeine, Viszeral-, Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie 2021;146(01):37 View
  42. Birtill M, King J, Jones D, Thyer L, Pap R, Simpson P. The use of immersive simulation in paramedicine education: a scoping review. Interactive Learning Environments 2021:1 View
  43. Moro C, Birt J, Stromberga Z, Phelps C, Clark J, Glasziou P, Scott A. Virtual and Augmented Reality Enhancements to Medical and Science Student Physiology and Anatomy Test Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis. Anatomical Sciences Education 2021;14(3):368 View
  44. Castoldi L, Greco M, Carlucci M, Lennquist Montán K, Faccincani R. Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) training in a metropolitan university hospital: short-term experience with MAss Casualty SIMulation system MACSIM®. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 2020 View
  45. Dziedzic A, Tanasiewicz M, Abed H, Dickinson C, Picciani B. Are Special Care Dentistry Services Prepared for a Global Disruption in Healthcare? A Call for a Wider Promotion of Dental Conscious Sedation Training. Healthcare 2020;8(4):419 View
  46. Bork F, Lehner A, Eck U, Navab N, Waschke J, Kugelmann D. The Effectiveness of Collaborative Augmented Reality in Gross Anatomy Teaching: A Quantitative and Qualitative Pilot Study. Anatomical Sciences Education 2020 View
  47. Hu K, Salcedo D, Kang Y, Lin C, Hsu C, Cheng C, Suk F, Huang W, Ito E. Impact of virtual reality anatomy training on ultrasound competency development: A randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE 2020;15(11):e0242731 View
  48. van Stralen K, Ruijter L, Frissen J, den Boer R, Struben V, van Oostveen C, Laws M. Patients want to be seen: The top 3 information needs of patients with inguinal hernia. PLOS ONE 2020;15(10):e0240433 View
  49. Aebersold M, Dunbar D. Virtual and Augmented Realities in Nursing Education: State of the Science. Annual Review of Nursing Research 2020;39(1):225 View
  50. Horsham C, Dutton-Regester K, Antrobus J, Goldston A, Price H, Ford H, Hacker E. A Virtual Reality Game to Change Sun Protection Behavior and Prevent Cancer: User-Centered Design Approach. JMIR Serious Games 2021;9(1):e24652 View
  51. Bracq M, Michinov E, Le Duff M, Arnaldi B, Gouranton V, Jannin P. Training situational awareness for scrub nurses: Error recognition in a virtual operating room. Nurse Education in Practice 2021;53:103056 View
  52. Mahajan U, Sunshine K, Herring E, Labak C, Wright J, Smith G. Virtual reality in presurgical patient education: A scoping review and recommended trial design guidelines. The American Journal of Surgery 2021 View
  53. Logeswaran A, Munsch C, Chong Y, Ralph N, McCrossnan J. The role of extended reality technology in healthcare education: Towards a learner-centred approach. Future Healthcare Journal 2021;8(1):e79 View
  54. Chen T, Zhang Y, Ding C, Ting K, Yoon S, Sahak H, Hope A, McLachlin S, Crawford E, Hardisty M, Larouche J, Finkelstein J. Virtual reality as a learning tool in spinal anatomy and surgical techniques. North American Spine Society Journal (NASSJ) 2021;6:100063 View
  55. Cesari V, Galgani B, Gemignani A, Menicucci D. Enhancing Qualities of Consciousness during Online Learning via Multisensory Interactions. Behavioral Sciences 2021;11(5):57 View
  56. Plotzky C, Lindwedel U, Bejan A, König P, Kunze C. Virtual Reality in Healthcare Skills Training: The Effects of Presence on Acceptance and Increase of Knowledge. i-com 2021;20(1):73 View
  57. Slater P, Hasson F, Moore K, Sharkey F. Simulated Based Dementia Training: Impact on Empathic Understanding and Behaviour Among Professionals and Carers. Clinical Simulation in Nursing 2021;55:43 View
  58. Chao Y, Hu S, Chiu H, Huang P, Tsai H, Chuang Y. The effects of an immersive 3d interactive video program on improving student nurses' nursing skill competence: A randomized controlled trial study. Nurse Education Today 2021;103:104979 View
  59. Brydon M, Kimber J, Sponagle M, MacLaine J, Avery J, Pyke L, Gilbert R. Virtual Reality as a Tool for Eliciting Empathetic Behaviour in Carers: An Integrative Review. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 2021 View
  60. Mansoory M, Khazaei M, Azizi S, Niromand E. Comparison of the effectiveness of lecture instruction and virtual reality-based serious gaming instruction on the medical students’ learning outcome about approach to coma. BMC Medical Education 2021;21(1) View
  61. Guillén-Gámez F, Cabero-Almenara J, Llorente-Cejudo C, Palacios-Rodríguez A. Differential Analysis of the Years of Experience of Higher Education Teachers, their Digital Competence and use of Digital Resources: Comparative Research Methods. Technology, Knowledge and Learning 2021 View
  62. Obrero-Gaitán E, Nieto-Escamez F, Zagalaz-Anula N, Cortés-Pérez I. An Innovative Approach for Online Neuroanatomy and Neurorrehabilitation Teaching Based on 3D Virtual Anatomical Models Using Leap Motion Controller During COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology 2021;12 View
  63. Orok E, Nwekwo L, Ejike C, Azih C. Effect of an Educational Intervention on the Knowledge of Young Researchers on COVID-19. Journal of Contemporary Studies in Epidemiology and Public Health 2021;2(1):ep21004 View
  64. Mallik R, Patel M, Atkinson B, Kar P. Exploring the Role of Virtual Reality to Support Clinical Diabetes Training—A Pilot Study. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 2021:193229682110278 View
  65. Pears M, Konstantinidis S. The Future of Immersive Technology in Global Surgery Education. Indian Journal of Surgery 2021 View
  66. Cerritelli F, Chiera M, Abbro M, Megale V, Esteves J, Gallace A, Manzotti A. The Challenges and Perspectives of the Integration Between Virtual and Augmented Reality and Manual Therapies. Frontiers in Neurology 2021;12 View
  67. Hicks B, Konovalova I, Myers K, Falconer L, Board M. Taking ‘A walk through dementia’: exploring care home practitioners’ experiences of using a virtual reality tool to support dementia awareness. Ageing and Society 2021:1 View
  68. Lee S, Kim M, Kim H, Park C. Visual fatigue induced by watching virtual reality device and the effect of anisometropia. Ergonomics 2021:1 View
  69. Ranpariya V, Huang W, Feldman S. Virtual reality memory palace: An innovative dermatology education modality. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2021 View
  70. López-Ojeda W, Hurley R. Extended-Reality Technologies: An Overview of Emerging Applications in Medical Education and Clinical Care. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2021;33(3):A4 View
  71. Ong T, Wilczewski H, Paige S, Soni H, Welch B, Bunnell B. Extended Reality for Enhanced Telehealth During and Beyond COVID-19: Viewpoint. JMIR Serious Games 2021;9(3):e26520 View
  72. Perron J, Coffey M, Lovell-Simons A, Dominguez L, King M, Ooi C. Resuscitating Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in a Virtual Reality: Prospective Interventional Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(7):e22920 View
  73. Abulfaraj M, Jeffers J, Tackett S, Chang T. Virtual Reality vs. High-Fidelity Mannequin-Based Simulation: A Pilot Randomized Trial Evaluating Learner Performance. Cureus 2021 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Bajuri M, Zamri K, Ahmad M, Mohd Ismail M. Advances in Visual Informatics. View
  2. Yilmaz D, Tuncalı S, Yilmaz Y. Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education, Art, and Museums. View
  3. Stein A, Ben Â, Pachito D, Cazella S, van Dongen J, Bosmans J. Integrating the Organization of Health Services, Worker Wellbeing and Quality of Care. View
  4. Fontanella M, Pacchiega C. Handbook of Research on Teaching With Virtual Environments and AI. View
  5. Etchegary C, Taylor L, Mahoney K, Parfrey O, Hall A. Clinical Epidemiology. View
  6. Dev P, Schleyer T. Biomedical Informatics. View
  7. Yilmaz D, Tuncalı S, Yilmaz Y. Research Anthology on Nursing Education and Overcoming Challenges in the Workplace. View