Published on in Vol 23, No 3 (2021): March

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/24850, first published .
A Therapeutic Relational Agent for Reducing Problematic Substance Use (Woebot): Development and Usability Study

A Therapeutic Relational Agent for Reducing Problematic Substance Use (Woebot): Development and Usability Study

A Therapeutic Relational Agent for Reducing Problematic Substance Use (Woebot): Development and Usability Study

Journals

  1. Darcy A, Daniels J, Salinger D, Wicks P, Robinson A. Evidence of Human-Level Bonds Established With a Digital Conversational Agent: Cross-sectional, Retrospective Observational Study. JMIR Formative Research 2021;5(5):e27868 View
  2. Boucher E, Harake N, Ward H, Stoeckl S, Vargas J, Minkel J, Parks A, Zilca R. Artificially intelligent chatbots in digital mental health interventions: a review. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2021;18(sup1):37 View
  3. Ray A, Bhardwaj A, Malik Y, Singh S, Gupta R. Artificial intelligence and Psychiatry: An overview. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 2022;70:103021 View
  4. Melamed O, deRuiter W, Buckley L, Selby P. Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Impact on Substance Use Disorder Treatments. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 2022;45(1):95 View
  5. Denecke K, May R. Developing a Technical-Oriented Taxonomy to Define Archetypes of Conversational Agents in Health Care: Literature Review and Cluster Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e41583 View
  6. Martinengo L, Jabir A, Goh W, Lo N, Ho M, Kowatsch T, Atun R, Michie S, Tudor Car L. Conversational Agents in Health Care: Scoping Review of Their Behavior Change Techniques and Underpinning Theory. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(10):e39243 View
  7. Chiauzzi E, Robinson A, Martin K, Petersen C, Wells N, Williams A, Gleason M. A Relational Agent Intervention for Adolescents Seeking Mental Health Treatment: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2023;12:e44940 View
  8. Aggarwal A, Tam C, Wu D, Li X, Qiao S. Artificial Intelligence–Based Chatbots for Promoting Health Behavioral Changes: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e40789 View
  9. Alphonse A, Stewart K, Brown J, Perski O. Exploring Users’ Experiences With a Quick-Response Chatbot Within a Popular Smoking Cessation Smartphone App: Semistructured Interview Study. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(7):e36869 View
  10. Marciano L, Saboor S. Reinventing mental health care in youth through mobile approaches: Current status and future steps. Frontiers in Psychology 2023;14 View
  11. Nicol G, Wang R, Graham S, Dodd S, Garbutt J. Chatbot-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents With Depression and Anxiety During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Feasibility and Acceptability Study. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(11):e40242 View
  12. Ditton E, Knott B, Hodyl N, Horton G, Oldmeadow C, Walker F, Nilsson M. Evaluation of an App-Delivered Psychological Flexibility Skill Training Intervention for Medical Student Burnout and Well-being: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Mental Health 2023;10:e42566 View
  13. Hwang M, Kim S, Chung D. Exploring the impacts of implicit context association and arithmetic booster in impulsivity reduction. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2022;13 View
  14. Rathnayaka P, Mills N, Burnett D, De Silva D, Alahakoon D, Gray R. A Mental Health Chatbot with Cognitive Skills for Personalised Behavioural Activation and Remote Health Monitoring. Sensors 2022;22(10):3653 View
  15. Prochaska J, Vogel E, Chieng A, Baiocchi M, Maglalang D, Pajarito S, Weingardt K, Darcy A, Robinson A. A randomized controlled trial of a therapeutic relational agent for reducing substance misuse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2021;227:108986 View
  16. Lattie E, Stiles-Shields C, Graham A. An overview of and recommendations for more accessible digital mental health services. Nature Reviews Psychology 2022;1(2):87 View
  17. Lim J, Hong M, Lam W, Zhang Z, Teo Z, Liu Y, Ng W, Foo L, Ting D. Novel technical and privacy-preserving technology for artificial intelligence in ophthalmology. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2022;33(3):174 View
  18. Chen Z, Kulkarni P, Galatzer-Levy I, Bigio B, Nasca C, Zhang Y. Modern views of machine learning for precision psychiatry. Patterns 2022;3(11):100602 View
  19. Ditton E, Knott B, Hodyl N, Horton G, Walker F, Nilsson M. Medical Student Experiences of Engaging in a Psychological Flexibility Skill Training App for Burnout and Well-being: Pilot Feasibility Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e43263 View
  20. Fitzsimmons‐Craft E, Chan W, Smith A, Firebaugh M, Fowler L, Topooco N, DePietro B, Wilfley D, Taylor C, Jacobson N. Effectiveness of a chatbot for eating disorders prevention: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2022;55(3):343 View
  21. Ta-Johnson V, Boatfield C, Wang X, DeCero E, Krupica I, Rasof S, Motzer A, Pedryc W. Assessing the Topics and Motivating Factors Behind Human-Social Chatbot Interactions: Thematic Analysis of User Experiences. JMIR Human Factors 2022;9(4):e38876 View
  22. Wu X, Du J, Jiang H, Zhao M. Application of Digital Medicine in Addiction. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science) 2022;27(2):144 View
  23. Timakum T, Xie Q, Song M. Analysis of E-mental health research: mapping the relationship between information technology and mental healthcare. BMC Psychiatry 2022;22(1) View
  24. Darcy A, Beaudette A, Chiauzzi E, Daniels J, Goodwin K, Mariano T, Wicks P, Robinson A. Anatomy of a Woebot® (WB001): agent guided CBT for women with postpartum depression. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2022;19(4):287 View
  25. Yadav S, Kaushik A. Do You Ever Get Off Track in a Conversation? The Conversational System’s Anatomy and Evaluation Metrics. Knowledge 2022;2(1):55 View
  26. Huq S, Maskeliūnas R, Damaševičius R. Dialogue agents for artificial intelligence-based conversational systems for cognitively disabled: a systematic review. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 2024;19(3):1059 View
  27. Chen T, Chen L, Li S, Du J, Su H, Jiang H, Wu Q, Zhang L, Bao J, Zhao M. Virtual Digital Psychotherapist App–Based Treatment in Patients With Methamphetamine Use Disorder (Echo-APP): Single-Arm Pilot Feasibility and Efficacy Study. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2023;11:e40373 View
  28. Prochaska J, Vogel E, Chieng A, Baiocchi M, Pajarito S, Pirner M, Darcy A, Robinson A. A relational agent for treating substance use in adults: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial with a psychoeducational comparator. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2023;127:107125 View
  29. Lavelle J, Dunne N, Mulcahy H, McHugh L. Chatbot-Delivered Cognitive Defusion versus Cognitive Restructuring for Negative Self-Referential Thoughts: A Pilot Study. The Psychological Record 2022;72(2):247 View
  30. Denecke K, May R. Investigating conversational agents in healthcare: Application of a technical-oriented taxonomy. Procedia Computer Science 2023;219:1289 View
  31. Jabir A, Martinengo L, Lin X, Torous J, Subramaniam M, Tudor Car L. Evaluating Conversational Agents for Mental Health: Scoping Review of Outcomes and Outcome Measurement Instruments. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e44548 View
  32. Brown A, Kumar A, Melamed O, Ahmed I, Wang Y, Deza A, Morcos M, Zhu L, Maslej M, Minian N, Sujaya V, Wolff J, Doggett O, Iantorno M, Ratto M, Selby P, Rose J. A Motivational Interviewing Chatbot With Generative Reflections for Increasing Readiness to Quit Smoking: Iterative Development Study. JMIR Mental Health 2023;10:e49132 View
  33. Hsu M. The Construction of Critical Factors for Successfully Introducing Chatbots into Mental Health Services in the Army: Using a Hybrid MCDM Approach. Sustainability 2023;15(10):7905 View
  34. Muppasani B, Pallagani V, Lakkaraju K, Lei S, Srivastava B, Robertson B, Hickerson A, Narayanan V. On safe and usable chatbots for promoting voter participation. AI Magazine 2023;44(3):240 View
  35. AKYAZI K, BAŞTEMUR Ş. Interactive Robots: Therapy Robots. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar 2024;16(1):16 View
  36. Avula V, Amalakanti S. Artificial intelligence in psychiatry, present trends, and challenges: An updated review. Archives of Mental Health 2023 View
  37. Powell L, Nour R, Sleibi R, Al Suwaidi H, Zary N. Democratizing the Development of Chatbots to Improve Public Health: Feasibility Study of COVID-19 Misinformation. JMIR Human Factors 2023;10:e43120 View
  38. Alowais S, Alghamdi S, Alsuhebany N, Alqahtani T, Alshaya A, Almohareb S, Aldairem A, Alrashed M, Bin Saleh K, Badreldin H, Al Yami M, Al Harbi S, Albekairy A. Revolutionizing healthcare: the role of artificial intelligence in clinical practice. BMC Medical Education 2023;23(1) View
  39. Loverock A, Marshall T, Viste D, Safi F, Rioux W, Sedaghat N, Kennedy M, Ghosh S. Electronic harm reduction interventions for drug overdose monitoring and prevention: A scoping review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2023;250:110878 View
  40. Forman-Hoffman V, Pirner M, Flom M, Kirvin-Quamme A, Durden E, Kissinger J, Robinson A. Engagement, Satisfaction, and Mental Health Outcomes Across Different Residential Subgroup Users of a Digital Mental Health Relational Agent: Exploratory Single-Arm Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e46473 View
  41. Wutz M, Hermes M, Winter V, Köberlein-Neu J. Factors Influencing the Acceptability, Acceptance, and Adoption of Conversational Agents in Health Care: Integrative Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2023;25:e46548 View
  42. Bendotti H, Lawler S, Chan G, Gartner C, Ireland D, Marshall H. Conversational artificial intelligence interventions to support smoking cessation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. DIGITAL HEALTH 2023;9 View
  43. Suharwardy S, Ramachandran M, Leonard S, Gunaseelan A, Lyell D, Darcy A, Robinson A, Judy A. Feasibility and impact of a mental health chatbot on postpartum mental health: a randomized controlled trial. AJOG Global Reports 2023;3(3):100165 View
  44. Denecke K, May R, Gabarron E, Lopez-Campos G. Assessing the Potential Risks of Digital Therapeutics (DTX): The DTX Risk Assessment Canvas. Journal of Personalized Medicine 2023;13(10):1523 View
  45. Nashwan A, Gharib S, Alhadidi M, El-Ashry A, Alamgir A, Al-Hassan M, Khedr M, Dawood S, Abufarsakh B. Harnessing Artificial Intelligence: Strategies for Mental Health Nurses in Optimizing Psychiatric Patient Care. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2023;44(10):1020 View
  46. Darcy A, Beaudette A, Chiauzzi E, Daniels J, Goodwin K, Mariano T, Wicks P, Robinson A. Anatomy of a Woebot® (WB001): agent guided CBT for women with postpartum depression. Expert Review of Medical Devices 2023;20(12):1035 View
  47. Grodniewicz J, Hohol M. Waiting for a digital therapist: three challenges on the path to psychotherapy delivered by artificial intelligence. Frontiers in Psychiatry 2023;14 View
  48. Balcombe L. AI Chatbots in Digital Mental Health. Informatics 2023;10(4):82 View
  49. Karkosz S, Szymański R, Sanna K, Michałowski J. Effectiveness of a Web-based and Mobile Therapy Chatbot on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Subclinical Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Formative Research 2024;8:e47960 View
  50. Durden E, Pirner M, Rapoport S, Williams A, Robinson A, Forman-Hoffman V. Changes in stress, burnout, and resilience associated with an 8-week intervention with relational agent “Woebot”. Internet Interventions 2023;33:100637 View
  51. Jabir A, Lin X, Martinengo L, Sharp G, Theng Y, Tudor Car L. Attrition in Conversational Agent–Delivered Mental Health Interventions: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e48168 View
  52. Ding H, Simmich J, Vaezipour A, Andrews N, Russell T. Evaluation framework for conversational agents with artificial intelligence in health interventions: a systematic scoping review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2024;31(3):746 View
  53. Li H, Zhang R, Lee Y, Kraut R, Mohr D. Systematic review and meta-analysis of AI-based conversational agents for promoting mental health and well-being. npj Digital Medicine 2023;6(1) View
  54. Lai T, Shi Y, Du Z, Wu J, Fu K, Dou Y, Wang Z. Supporting the Demand on Mental Health Services with AI-Based Conversational Large Language Models (LLMs). BioMedInformatics 2023;4(1):8 View
  55. Ma Y, Achiche S, Pomey M, Paquette J, Adjtoutah N, Vicente S, Engler K, Laymouna M, Lessard D, Lemire B, Asselah J, Therrien R, Osmanlliu E, Zawati M, Joly Y, Lebouché B. Adapting and Evaluating an AI-Based Chatbot Through Patient and Stakeholder Engagement to Provide Information for Different Health Conditions: Master Protocol for an Adaptive Platform Trial (the MARVIN Chatbots Study). JMIR Research Protocols 2024;13:e54668 View
  56. Qi Y. Pilot Quasi-Experimental Research on the Effectiveness of the Woebot AI Chatbot for Reducing Mild Depression Symptoms among Athletes. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction 2024:1 View
  57. Gopalakrishnan A, Gururajan R, Zhou X, Venkataraman R, Chan K, Higgins N. A survey of autonomous monitoring systems in mental health. WIREs Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 2024;14(3) View
  58. Chiauzzi E, Williams A, Mariano T, Pajarito S, Robinson A, Kirvin-Quamme A, Forman-Hoffman V. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with anxiety and depressive symptom outcomes in users of a digital mental health intervention incorporating a relational agent. BMC Psychiatry 2024;24(1) View
  59. Armaou M. Research Trends in the Study of Acceptability of Digital Mental Health-Related Interventions: A Bibliometric and Network Visualisation Analysis. Social Sciences 2024;13(2):114 View
  60. Bhargava H, Salomon C, Suresh S, Chang A, Kilian R, Stijn D, Oriol A, Low D, Knebel A, Taraman S. Promises, Pitfalls, and Clinical Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Pediatrics. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024;26:e49022 View
  61. Bak M, Chin J. The potential and limitations of large language models in identification of the states of motivations for facilitating health behavior change. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2024 View
  62. King Jr V, Siegel G, Priesmeyer H, Siegel L, Potter J. Development and Evaluation of a Digital App for Patient Self-Management of Opioid Use Disorder: Usability, Acceptability, and Utility Study. JMIR Formative Research 2024;8:e48068 View
  63. Laymouna M, Ma Y, Lessard D, Schuster T, Engler K, Lebouché B. Roles, Users, Benefits and Limitations of Chatbots in Healthcare: A Rapid Review (Preprint). Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024 View
  64. Luna A, Hyler S. From Bytes to Insights: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence–Powered Psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry 2024 View
  65. Hirani R, Noruzi K, Khuram H, Hussaini A, Aifuwa E, Ely K, Lewis J, Gabr A, Smiley A, Tiwari R, Etienne M. Artificial Intelligence and Healthcare: A Journey through History, Present Innovations, and Future Possibilities. Life 2024;14(5):557 View
  66. Collins L, Nicholson N, Lidbetter N, Smithson D, Baker P. Implementation of Anxiety UK’s Ask Anxia® chatbot service: Lessons learned (Preprint). JMIR Human Factors 2023 View

Books/Policy Documents

  1. Koivisto M. Innovative Approaches to Technology-Enhanced Learning for the Workplace and Higher Education. View
  2. Bickmore T, Wallace B. Intelligent Systems in Medicine and Health. View
  3. Viduani A, Cosenza V, Araújo R, Kieling C. Digital Mental Health. View
  4. Bickmore T, O'Leary T. Digital Therapeutics for Mental Health and Addiction. View
  5. Giyahchi T, Singh S, Harris I, Pechmann C. Multimodal AI in Healthcare. View
  6. Ruhlmann R, Fairbairn C, Flanagan J. New Directions in Addiction Science. View
  7. Scheibenbogen O, Jobst F. Suchtbehandlung und Digitalisierung. View
  8. Garcia-Lopez A. The Theory of Mind Under Scrutiny. View
  9. Barua R. Approaches to Human-Centered AI in Healthcare. View
  10. Devaraj E, Satheesha T, Yadav S, Kaviti R. Business Continuity Management and Resilience. View