Published on in Vol 22, No 2 (2020): February

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Responses of Conversational Agents to Health and Lifestyle Prompts: Investigation of Appropriateness and Presentation Structures

Responses of Conversational Agents to Health and Lifestyle Prompts: Investigation of Appropriateness and Presentation Structures

Responses of Conversational Agents to Health and Lifestyle Prompts: Investigation of Appropriateness and Presentation Structures


  1. Miner A, Laranjo L, Kocaballi A. Chatbots in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. npj Digital Medicine 2020;3(1) View
  2. Sezgin E, Huang Y, Ramtekkar U, Lin S. Readiness for voice assistants to support healthcare delivery during a health crisis and pandemic. npj Digital Medicine 2020;3(1) View
  3. Masina F, Orso V, Pluchino P, Dainese G, Volpato S, Nelini C, Mapelli D, Spagnolli A, Gamberini L. Investigating the Accessibility of Voice Assistants With Impaired Users: Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020;22(9):e18431 View
  4. Mehl A, Bergey F, Cawley C, Gilsdorf A. Syndromic Surveillance Insights from a Symptom Assessment App Before and During COVID-19 Measures in Germany and the United Kingdom: Results From Repeated Cross-Sectional Analyses. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2020;8(10):e21364 View
  5. Vaidyam A, Linggonegoro D, Torous J. Changes to the Psychiatric Chatbot Landscape: A Systematic Review of Conversational Agents in Serious Mental Illness: Changements du paysage psychiatrique des chatbots: une revue systématique des agents conversationnels dans la maladie mentale sérieuse. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2021;66(4):339 View
  6. Namba H. Physical Activity Evaluation Using a Voice Recognition App: Development and Validation Study. JMIR Biomedical Engineering 2021;6(1):e19088 View
  7. Yang S, Lee J, Sezgin E, Bridge J, Lin S. Clinical Advice by Voice Assistants on Postpartum Depression: Cross-Sectional Investigation Using Apple Siri, Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, and Microsoft Cortana. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 2021;9(1):e24045 View
  8. Jadczyk T, Wojakowski W, Tendera M, Henry T, Egnaczyk G, Shreenivas S. Artificial Intelligence Can Improve Patient Management at the Time of a Pandemic: The Role of Voice Technology. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(5):e22959 View
  9. Srivastava B. Did chatbots miss their “Apollo Moment”? Potential, gaps, and lessons from using collaboration assistants during COVID-19. Patterns 2021;2(8):100308 View
  10. Morrow E, Zidaru T, Ross F, Mason C, Patel K, Ream M, Stockley R. Artificial intelligence technologies and compassion in healthcare: A systematic scoping review. Frontiers in Psychology 2023;13 View
  11. Schlieter H, Marsch L, Whitehouse D, Otto L, Londral A, Teepe G, Benedict M, Ollier J, Ulmer T, Gasser N, Ultsch S, Wollschlaeger B, Kowatsch T. Scale-up of Digital Innovations in Health Care: Expert Commentary on Enablers and Barriers. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(3):e24582 View
  12. Coiera E, Liu S. Evidence synthesis, digital scribes, and translational challenges for artificial intelligence in healthcare. Cell Reports Medicine 2022;3(12):100860 View
  13. Gifu D, Pop E. Smart Solutions to Keep Your Mental Balance. Procedia Computer Science 2022;214:503 View
  14. Seródio Figueiredo C, de Melo T, Goes R. Evaluating Voice Assistants' Responses to COVID-19 Vaccination in Portuguese: Quality Assessment. JMIR Human Factors 2022;9(1):e34674 View
  15. Potts C, Ennis E, Bond R, Mulvenna M, McTear M, Boyd K, Broderick T, Malcolm M, Kuosmanen L, Nieminen H, Vartiainen A, Kostenius C, Cahill B, Vakaloudis A, McConvey G, O’Neill S. Chatbots to Support Mental Wellbeing of People Living in Rural Areas: Can User Groups Contribute to Co-design?. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science 2021;6(4):652 View
  16. Shan Y, Ji M, Xie W, Qian X, Li R, Zhang X, Hao T. Language Use in Conversational Agent–Based Health Communication: Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(7):e37403 View
  17. Sossenheimer P, Hong G, Devon-Sand A, Lin S. Voice Assistants’ Responses to Questions About the COVID-19 Vaccine: National Cross-sectional Study. JMIR Formative Research 2023;7:e43007 View
  18. Eagle T, Blau C, Bales S, Desai N, Li V, Whittaker S. “I don’t know what you mean by `I am anxious'”: A New Method for Evaluating Conversational Agent Responses to Standardized Mental Health Inputs for Anxiety and Depression. ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems 2022;12(2):1 View
  19. Kannampallil T, Ronneberg C, Wittels N, Kumar V, Lv N, Smyth J, Gerber B, Kringle E, Johnson J, Yu P, Steinman L, Ajilore O, Ma J. Design and Formative Evaluation of a Virtual Voice-Based Coach for Problem-solving Treatment: Observational Study. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(8):e38092 View
  20. Bérubé C, Kovacs Z, Fleisch E, Kowatsch T. Reliability of Commercial Voice Assistants’ Responses to Health-Related Questions in Noncommunicable Disease Management: Factorial Experiment Assessing Response Rate and Source of Information. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(12):e32161 View
  21. Bin Sawad A, Narayan B, Alnefaie A, Maqbool A, Mckie I, Smith J, Yuksel B, Puthal D, Prasad M, Kocaballi A. A Systematic Review on Healthcare Artificial Intelligent Conversational Agents for Chronic Conditions. Sensors 2022;22(7):2625 View
  22. Kocaballi A, Sezgin E, Clark L, Carroll J, Huang Y, Huh-Yoo J, Kim J, Kocielnik R, Lee Y, Mamykina L, Mitchell E, Moore R, Murali P, Mynatt E, Park S, Pasta A, Richards D, Silva L, Smriti D, Spillane B, Zhang Z, Zubatiy T. Design and Evaluation Challenges of Conversational Agents in Health Care and Well-being: Selective Review Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2022;24(11):e38525 View
  23. Bickmore T, Ólafsson S, O'Leary T. Mitigating Patient and Consumer Safety Risks When Using Conversational Assistants for Medical Information: Exploratory Mixed Methods Experiment. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2021;23(11):e30704 View
  24. Maenhout L, Peuters C, Cardon G, Compernolle S, Crombez G, DeSmet A. Participatory Development and Pilot Testing of an Adolescent Health Promotion Chatbot. Frontiers in Public Health 2021;9 View
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  26. Siemon D, Ahmad R, Harms H, de Vreede T. Requirements and Solution Approaches to Personality-Adaptive Conversational Agents in Mental Health Care. Sustainability 2022;14(7):3832 View
  27. Okonkwo C, Amusa L, Twinomurinzi H. COVID-Bot, an Intelligent System for COVID-19 Vaccination Screening: Design and Development. JMIR Formative Research 2022;6(10):e39157 View
  28. You Y, Tsai C, Li Y, Ma F, Heron C, Gui X. Beyond Self-diagnosis: How a Chatbot-based Symptom Checker Should Respond. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 2023;30(4):1 View
  29. Kannampallil T, Ajilore O, Lv N, Smyth J, Wittels N, Ronneberg C, Kumar V, Xiao L, Dosala S, Barve A, Zhang A, Tan K, Cao K, Patel C, Gerber B, Johnson J, Kringle E, Ma J. Effects of a virtual voice-based coach delivering problem-solving treatment on emotional distress and brain function: a pilot RCT in depression and anxiety. Translational Psychiatry 2023;13(1) View
  30. Goh A, Wong L, Yap K. Evaluation of COVID-19 Information Provided by Digital Voice Assistants. International Journal of Digital Health 2021;1(1):3 View
  31. Coiera E, Verspoor K, Hansen D. We need to chat about artificial intelligence. Medical Journal of Australia 2023;219(3):98 View
  32. Land J, Pavlik E, Ueland E, Ueland S, Per N, Quick K, Gorski J, Riggs M, Hutchcraft M, Llanora J, Yun D. Evaluation of Replies to Voice Queries in Gynecologic Oncology by Virtual Assistants Siri, Alexa, Google, and Cortana. BioMedInformatics 2023;3(3):553 View
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  34. Ding H, Simmich J, Vaezipour A, Andrews N, Russell T. Evaluation framework for conversational agents with artificial intelligence in health interventions: a systematic scoping review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2023 View
  35. Kurniawan M, Handiyani H, Nuraini T, Hariyati R, Sutrisno S. A systematic review of artificial intelligence-powered (AI-powered) chatbot intervention for managing chronic illness. Annals of Medicine 2024;56(1) View
  36. Anisha S, Sen A, Bain C. Evaluating the Potential and Pitfalls of AI-Powered Conversational Agents as Human-like Virtual Health Carers in the Remote Management of Non-Communicable Diseases: A Scoping Review (Preprint). Journal of Medical Internet Research 2024 View
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Books/Policy Documents

  1. Rydosz A. Diabetes Without Needles. View
  2. Glare P, Laranjo da Silva L, Kirisci L, Ashton-James C. Person Centered Medicine. View
  3. Ghoul Y, Zitouni N. Artificial Intelligence-based Healthcare Systems. View