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Currently submitted to: Journal of Medical Internet Research

Date Submitted: Jan 8, 2021
Open Peer Review Period: Jan 7, 2021 - Mar 4, 2021
(currently open for review)

Warning: This is an author submission that is not peer-reviewed or edited. Preprints - unless they show as "accepted" - should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

Search trends of online interest in LUTS enquiry, diagnosis and treatment in China

  • Shanzun Wei; 
  • Ming Ma; 
  • Changjing Wu; 
  • Botao Yu; 
  • Lisha Jiang; 
  • Fudong Fu; 
  • Ming Shi



Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are one of the most described urination disorders worldwide. Previous investigations have focused predominantly on the prospective identification of cases that meets the researchers criteria, the genuine demand as regard to LUTS and related issues from patients may thus be neglected.


To examine the online search trend and behaviours related to LUTS on a national and regional scale using the dominant major search engine in mainland China.


The Baidu Index was queried using the LUTS related terms for the period 2011.01–2020.09. The search volume for each term was recorded to analyze the search trend and demographic distributions. For user interest, the data of demand graph and trend data were collected and analyzed.


Of the 13 LUTS symptom domains, 11 domains are available in Baidu index database. The BSI for each LUTS domains varies from 37.78% to 1.47%. the search trend of urinary frequency (APC = 7.82%; p < .05; 2011-2018), incomplete emptying (APC = 17.74%; p < .05; 2011-2016), nocturia (APC = 11.54%; p < .05; 2011-2018), dysuria (APC = 20.77%; p < .05; 2017-2020) and incontinence (APC = 13.39%; p < .05; 2011-2016). The search index trends for the weak stream (APC = -4.68%; p < .05; 2011-2017, APC = 9.32%, p = 2.35, 2017-2020), split stream (APC = 9.50%; p = .44, 2011-2013, APC = 2.05%, p = .71, 2013-2020), urgency (APC = -2.63%; p = 1.17, 2011-2018, APC = 8.58%; p = .19, 2018-2020), nocturnal enuresis (APC = -4.20%; p = .62, 2011-2017, APC = 20.77%, p < .05, 2017-2020). The age distribution of the population of each LUTS symptom enquiries shows that the population aged 20 to 40 years comprised over 65% of the total search enquiries. Seconded is 5.2%- 21.50 % in the age group 40-49 years. People from the east part of china made over 50% of the total search queries. Further, most of these searches for LUTS symptom entries are related to those for urinary diseases in varying degrees.


Online interest in LUTS term fluctuated wildly and was reflected timely by Baidu index in china mainland. The online search popularity for each LUTS terms varie significantly and is differed from personal interest, population concerns, regional variations and gender. These data can be used by providers to track LUTS prevalence and population interests in guiding establish disease-specific healthcare policies and optimize the physician-patient healthcare sessions.


Please cite as:

Wei S, Ma M, Wu C, Yu B, Jiang L, Fu F, Shi M

Search trends of online interest in LUTS enquiry, diagnosis and treatment in China

JMIR Preprints. 08/01/2021:27029

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