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Currently submitted to: Journal of Medical Internet Research

Date Submitted: Jul 2, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: Jul 2, 2020 - Jul 21, 2020
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Noncommunicable chronic disease and the risk of COVID-19: a population-based case-control study

  • Liyuan Jiang; 
  • Jianzhong Hu; 
  • Xiang Chen; 
  • Pinhua Pan; 
  • Minxue Shen; 
  • Dan Luo; 



To investigate the association of the non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) with the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


A case-control study was conducted. The cases were laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated in the Union Hospital in Wuhan. The healthy controls were randomly selected from the participants of the Hunan Government Employee Cohort study who were not infected with COVID-19, matching by age and sex. NCDs including hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, and cancer were determined by self-reportings, use of medications, measurements, and/or laboratory testings. The severity of COVID-19 was determined by physicians according to the guideline. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association, in terms of odds ratio (OR).


A total of 468 cases and 1404 controls (1:3) were included in the analysis with a mean age of 59.1±12.8 years and 51.7% male. The case group comprised 134 moderately ill, 275 severely ill, and 59 critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients with diabetes (OR=3.23, P<0.001), chronic pulmonary disease (OR=5.99, P<0.001), and hypertension (OR=1.45, P=0.001) showed a significantly increased risk of COVID-19 infection compared to the healthy controls. Additionally, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, hypertension, and the number of comorbid NCDs were associated with the severity of COVID-19 dose-dependently.


Patients with diabetes, hypertension, and chronic pulmonary disease are at a higher risk of having COVID-19 and developing severe type of the disease.


Please cite as:

Jiang L, Hu J, Chen X, Pan P, Shen M, Luo D

Noncommunicable chronic disease and the risk of COVID-19: a population-based case-control study

JMIR Preprints. 02/07/2020:22086

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.22086


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