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Currently submitted to: Journal of Medical Internet Research

Date Submitted: Jun 23, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: Jun 23, 2020 - Aug 23, 2020
(currently open for review)

Warning: This is an author submission that is not peer-reviewed or edited. Preprints - unless they show as "accepted" - should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

Health Beliefs Associated with Preventive Health Behaviors for COVID-19: Findings in a Sample Drawn from a Major City in Iran

  • Marzieh Araban; 
  • Mehdi Mesri; 
  • Mahmood Karimy; 
  • Mohammad Rreza Rouhani; 
  • LAR Stein; 




To date, in the absence of effective treatment and successful vaccines, the COVID-19 pandemic has become the most important threat to public health.


Objectives: This study was conducted in Saveh city, of Iran, in 2020. Of interest were how health beliefs (taken from the Health Belief’s Model [HBM]), demographic characteristics, and general health behaviors (e.g., smoking) relate to COVID-19 preventative behaviors (e.g., hand-washing).



In this descriptive-analytic study, a multi-stage randomized sampling method was used and 486 people (250 males and 236 females) recruited from health centers in Saveh city, Iran, participated. Data were collected through a self-administered multi‑part questionnaire, which included sociodemographic information, health behaviors, and constructs associated with HBM. Data were analyzed using independent t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression in SPSS version 21.



Perceived disease susceptibility (β=0.44, p<0.001), self-efficacy to enact preventative behaviors (β=0.24, p<0.01), education (β=0.20, p<0.001), non-smoking status (β=0.14, p<0.01), marital status (β=0.10, p<0.03), and perceived barriers to disease preventative behaviors (β=-0.10, p<0.04) were important predictors of prevention practices for COVID-19. Perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, barriers, and socio-demographic constructs (education, smoking, and marital status) accounted for 61.4% (adjusted R2) of the variance associated with preventive behavior for COVID-19.


Conclusion: To improve control strategies for the COVID-19 pandemic, public health initiatives are needed to enhance perceived susceptibility to the disease and improve self-efficacy to perform preventative behaviors in spite of perceived barriers.


Please cite as:

Araban M, Mesri M, Karimy M, Rouhani MR, Stein L

Health Beliefs Associated with Preventive Health Behaviors for COVID-19: Findings in a Sample Drawn from a Major City in Iran

JMIR Preprints. 23/06/2020:21710

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.21710


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