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Currently submitted to: Journal of Medical Internet Research

Date Submitted: May 25, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: May 25, 2020 - Jul 20, 2020
(currently open for review)

Warning: This is an author submission that is not peer-reviewed or edited. Preprints - unless they show as "accepted" - should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

Systematic and Statistical Review of COVID19 Treatment Trials

  • Juan Arturo Siordia; 
  • Michael Bernaba; 
  • Kenji Yoshino; 
  • Abid Ulhaque; 
  • Sooraj Kumar; 
  • Mario Bernaba; 
  • Edward Bergin; 



The COVID-19 pandemic produced multiple trials trying to promote certain treatments. However, the amount of studies having human controlled or randomized trials is scarce despite being important.


The following systematic review and meta-analysis compiles the current data regarding human controlled COVID-19 treatment trials.


An electronic search of the literature compiled studies pertaining to human controlled treatment trials with COVID-19. Medications assessed included lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, and heparin. Statistical analyzes were performed for common viral clearance endpoints whenever possible.


Lopinavir/ritonavir showed no significant effect on viral clearance for COVID-19 cases (OR 0.95 [95% CI 0.50-1.83]). Hydroxychloroquine also showed no significant effect on COVID-19 viral clearance rates (OR 2.16 [95% CI 0.80-5.84]). Arbidol showed no seven-day (OR 1.63 [95% CI 0.76-3.50]) or 14-day viral (OR 5.37 [95% CI 0.35-83.30]) clearance difference compared to lopinavir/ritonavir. Review of literature showed no significant clinical improvement with lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, or remdesivir. Favipiravir showed quicker symptom improvement compared to lopinavir/ritonavir and arbidol. Heparin showed improvement with severe COVID-19 cases.


Current medications do not show significant effect on COVID-19 viral clearance rates. Favipiravir shows favorable results compared to other tested medications. Heparin shows benefit for severe cases of COVID-19.


Please cite as:

Siordia JA, Bernaba M, Yoshino K, Ulhaque A, Kumar S, Bernaba M, Bergin E

Systematic and Statistical Review of COVID19 Treatment Trials

JMIR Preprints. 25/05/2020:20503

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.20503


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